Critical Analysis Of The Challenges Associated With Computer Education
This study dealt specifically on the perceived challenges associated with computer Education in selected senior secondary schools in Enugu east LGA of Enugu State. The study took a descriptive design and was a sample survey. It was guided by three research questions from which sixteen questionnaire items were raised. The study concludes that there are some basic strategies that could be adopted in order to improve the teaching of computer Education in secondary schools. The study is of the view that computer Education should provide sound basis for further training in computer Education at the tertiary level of education thus should be relied upon to enable students acquire the basic skills and knowledge needed to either secure a job and earn a living or to pursue further studies in the area computer and information science.
1.1 Background of the Study
One of the fundamental rights of every human being is education. Education prepares the individual for challenges in life. Consequently, Gujjar (2010) opined that education does not only deliver information, but for developing complete personality of a child. In Nigeria there are three levels of education: primary, secondary and tertiary level. Secondary education is the level between primary and tertiary education. It equally prepares students to be productive members of the society (Jegede2013). In developed countries, Secondary School is seen as the gateway to providing not only an educated citizenry but also a capable workforce. According to World Bank in Etim (2006), Secondary education is now being recognized as the cornerstone of educational system in the 21st century. It therefore means that quality Secondary education is indispensable in creating a bright future for individuals and nations alike.
The term Computer Studies have been used interchangeably, in some cases it has been referred to as computer education while in other cases it is called computer literacy. In whatever way, it means the same thing. Computer education is the effort or the ability to make the generality of the people computer literate. Computer literacy is the ability to be able to read, write and speak the language of the computer. It can also be looked at as a process of educating the people on how to use a computer to run a program and diverse application including business, industry and commerce (Okorie, 2012). Computer Education according to Edhuze (2003) involved teaching and inculcating in the learner the basic skills required to independently manipulate the computer to achieve educational goals. He further stated that, Computer Education as a subject is aimed at making students acquire skills and competencies required in this digital word of competitiveness. Such basic skills and competencies upon graduation make them conversant with term and practices embedded in the world of computer. Computer Education, therefore a subject organized toenable people understand the function, uses and limitations of the computer and to provide an opportunity for the study of the modern methods of information processing.
The intention of Nigeria to include Computer Education into the secondary school curriculum dates back to 1988 when the National Policy on Computer Education was enacted and launched (Abimbade, 1999). The policy on computer education suggested the following as some of the computer curriculum context at the secondary school level: A basic appreciation of how the computer works, an understanding of the basic principle of operating the computer, hands-on experience using the pre-programmed packages which are relevant to the interest of the students as teacher aids in different subjects. According to the National Policy on Computer Education (2006), it is expected that by the end of secondary education, the child has acquired reasonable competence in software such as word processing, spreadsheet, database analyzing programs that allow learners interact with the computer the way they desire (Ayogu, 2008). It therefore means that to achieve these objectives as stated in the National Policy on Education, strategies are needed.
In modern world, the computer is being gradually applied in all aspects of human endeavour. It has been stressed that the application of computer will enhance effectiveness and efficiency in this rapidly growing and technologically changing world. Computer education is being advocated because it is almost certain that computer literacy will have as much impact on career opportunities in the fast growing information age (Adamu and Bello, 2012). The relevance of computer education is therefore, hinged on its utility value. The National Policy on Education (NPE, 1981, revised in 1988, 1991, 1998 and 2004) introduced the teaching of Computer Education in Nigerian schools. The inclusion of the study of Computer Education in the school curriculum was aimed at providing opportunity for every student to become computer literate. The study of Computer Education has in effect, gained tremendous influence on the student and society. However, the use and study of computers in Nigeria is recent when compared to other parts of the world where computers have been in use in all facet of human endeavour including offices, schools, industries, research centre’s, communication, hospitals to mention but a few.
The complex nature of present day school situation has made transmission of information and instruction to students and the nature of learning and teaching in general more complex. This has made the role of the teacher in promoting learning more challenging. The new role does not just, involve mere transmission of information to students but also include looking at the problems associated with learning and instruction so that students can gain maximally from teaching and learning process. Computers are now used where there is a lot of data to be manipulated, where complex tasks must be managed or where there is need for real time access to centralized information from arbitrary locations such as in education, telemedicine, telecommunicating and in several other area (Adewopo, 2015). The study of computer in school is therefore, aimed at helping the students cope with modern technological development, equip them knowledge and competencies or skills of programme and administrative management as well as, improve the learning process. Students are expected to master the skills of computer appreciation or application and not just what it is and can do. Students are therefore, expected to be taught in such a way as not only to conceptualize and understand the computer, but also to be able to effectively manage their own learning, reinforce it and apply such knowledge or training in practical situation. This new approach has made the teaching of Computer Education a little bit more complex and challenging. It has been observed that the teaching and learning of Computer Education in schools has not been quite easy. Often time, people talk about inadequate equipments, facilities, and computers instructional resources for learning and teaching exercise (Aghadino, 2014). It is believed that teaching of science in general and Computer Education in particular is beset with a number of problems (Adamu, 2010). The slow pace of learning and application of computer had been attributed to this. This presupposes that there are problems associated with the teaching and learning of Computer Education education. In the circumstance therefore, one is prompted to ask: what exactly is the situation? What are the problems associated with the teaching of Computer Education education? It is against this backdrop this study was designed to carry out a critical analysis of the challenges associated with computer education using Enugu East as a case study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The growing need for computer literacy has made it imperative that increased attention be given to the study of computer at all level of education especially in secondary schools. The researcher observation on junior secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State shows that laboratory, computer and instructional materials required for learning of Computer Education are not only inadequate but have not been fully utilized. Further interaction with student has shown that they are not taught Computer Education regularly like any other subject due to shortage of computer teachers. However, one of the reasons why computer teachers are in short supply is that when teachers with computer qualification are employed, they prefer to teach mathematics rather than computer subject. Most of these computer teachers have been exposed only to the theoretical aspect of their programme while little or no attention was paid to the practical aspect of their programme during their years of training. (Aghadino, 2014).
It therefore means that without proper improvement on the gaps facing Computer Education in junior secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State, Secondary School Students upon graduation are bound to be completely obsolete in our contemporary society where knowledge of computer has become a prerequisite for employment, interview and in some cases for promotion. It is on this basis that the researcher deems it necessary to conduct a study on the perception of junior secondary school students’ on challenges associated with computer education in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study is to investigate the challenges associated with computer education in Secondary Schools in Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State.
The specific objectives include;
- To find out students-related challenges associated with learning computer education in Junior Secondary School
- To determine School-related challenges associated with learning of computer education in Secondary Schools
- To find out strategies in improving learning of computer education in Junior Secondary Schools.
1.4 Research Questions
To achieve the objective of the study, three research questions were formulated.
- What are students-related challenges associated with learning of Computer education in Junior Secondary Schools?
- What are the school-related challenges associated with learning of computer education?
- What are the strategies for improving the learning of Computer Education?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The researcher hopes that the result of this research work shall be beneficial to the following: educational administrators, Computer Education teachers, learners which include secondary school students and future researchers.
The findings of the study will help to make our Educational Administrators see the need to have qualified Computer Education teachers to handle the subject effectively for the benefits of the students and society at large.It will also help to sensitize the educational administrators to appreciate the need to make available the necessary materials, examples chalkboard, graph, audio-visual materials, etc that will enhance effective learning of Computer Education if they are not available.
This study will be of need directly to the Computer Education Teachers’ Association, drawing attention to the need for them to adopt more appropriate teaching method in order to bring about the desirable experience in the learners.
It will be useful for learners to identify the factors affecting the teaching and learning of Computer Education. It will help to produce sound computer scientists that will function well in the society. This work will serve as a source of encouragement to students and teachers that will come across it. It is hoped that the findings of this study would also form the basis for further research work by future researchers on this issues.
This work adds great knowledge to already existing literature in computer education and education in general thereby serve as an aid to future researchers.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study aimed at identifying the perception of junior secondary students on difficulties in learning Computer Education in secondary schools. It examined various factors which include; student related factors, school related factors difficulties that affect learning of Computer Education and as well proffer solutions to the out-listed difficulties. The study is delimited to public secondary schools in Enugu East LGA, Enugu State.
1.7 Limitation of Study
Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Computer is conceived as a device or machine designed specially to perform calculations, process data and store information which can be easily retrieved when required
National Policy of Education
Computer Science Education Teaching Assessment Questionnaire (CSETAQ)
Policy on Education Federal Republic of Nigeria
1.9 Organizations of the Study
The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.
Discussion, Conclusion, Recommendation and Summary
The chapter is concisely built on the conclusion, recommendations, suggestion for further studies, and summary of study.
Summary of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to establish the challenges associated with computer education in secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. In an attempt to focus the study, three research questions were posited to guide the study. Some published and unpublished works of earlier researchers were consulted.
To obtain answers to the questions a fifteen (15) item questionnaire was formulated based on the research questions and was administered to two hundred (200) respondents upon whose responses data was collected and analyzed.
The outcome of the analysis based on the responses of the respondents to the questionnaire items revealed that:
There are student related factors that causes difficulty in teaching computer studies. There are school-related factors that cause difficulty in teaching of computer Education in secondary schools. Proffer corrective strategies for improving the teaching of computer Education in secondary schools in Enugu East.
Therefore, it was concluded that it was concluded that there are some basic strategies that could be adopted in other to improve the teaching of computer Education in secondary schools.
The study concludes that there are some basic strategies that could be adopted in order to improve the teaching of computer Education in secondary schools. The study is of the view that computer Education should provide sound basis for further training in computer Education at the tertiary level of education thus should be relied upon to enable students acquire the basic skills and knowledge needed to either secure a job and earn a living or to pursue further studies in the area computer and information science.
Evidence from the study also revealed that funding strategies for computer Education could be used in improving the teaching of computer Education in secondary schools. It is also found that strategies for improving the availability and supply of instructional facilities as well as teaching methodologies strategies could be used to enhance the teaching of computer Education in secondary schools. It is evident in the study that when students are adequately trained under an improved learning environment where instructional facilities are provided and qualified teachers engaged for the services of teaching and learning applying by proper teaching techniques there is no doubt that the performance of students in computer Education will improve considerably, and as such they are bound to develop a remarkable interest in computer Education and develop the necessary skills required to secure and succeed in the workplace.
Based on the findings of the study, the researcher hereby makes the following recommendations:
- School administrators (Education Secretaries and Principals) should ensure that computer teachers are sponsored on retraining programmes at least twice a year through workshops, seminars and conferences to enable them learn the modern technological skills in their chosen field of endeavour.
- The school administrators should as a matter of urgency liase with private sectors to provide computers and other instructional materials needed for teaching of computer Education.
- Parents through the PTA and other major stakeholders of our education should assists our secondary schools by donating instructional facilities like laptops, desktop computers, multimedia, generating sets, internet etc to enable students practice and acquire the skills of computing.
Suggestion for further study
In view of the limitations to this study, the researcher suggests the following for further studies:
- The study can be replicated in other states of the federation to identify the difficulties and as well proffer strategies to improve the teaching of computer Education in secondary schools.
- A study should be carried out to determine the training needs of computer Education in post primary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.
Critical Analysis Of The Challenges Associated With Computer Education
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Critical Analysis Of The Challenges Associated With Computer Education
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Frequently Asked Questions
What are the challenges students face with laptops in school?
Key challenges noted include other student’s distracting laptop behaviours, instant messaging, surfing the web, playing games, watching movies, and decreased focus. Nearly three-quarters of the students claimed that laptops were useful in supporting their academic experience.
What is a critical analysis?
A critical analysis is a critical evaluation of an argument, an event (modern or historical), any work within its medium (film, books, music), social and political issues, and beyond.
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The results indicated that there are three main challenges that impede the usage of e-learning system, namely, (1) change management issues, (2) e-learning system technical issues and (3) financial support issues.
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