A Critical Analysis Of The Causes Of Business Failure In Nigeria And Their Possible Solutions

Project and Seminar Material for Entrepreneurship

A Critical Analysis Of The Causes Of Business Failure In Nigeria And Their Possible Solutions


This research work is on causes of business failure and possible solutions with a case study of Faith printing press, Uyo. business failure is when a firm is suffering from either technical insolvency or bankruptcy or when it happens that a firms total revenue do not cover its total cost , this can be avoided by finding solutions to business failure by way of managing resources in a proper way. It is in view of this that a research work as this was undertaken.

The research work contains five chapters, the introduction examines the historical background of the case study and so on and also limitations of the projects were outlined. chapter two was centered on the literature reviews with a view of bringing out what business entails, its operations and impact on the society ,its mode of operations and why and how failure occurs in business enter prices. Population sample and sources of data collocation were the various methods of data collection adopted .such as desk research ,personal interview as well as questionnaires

In chapter four presentation and analysis of data was shown in the write up. The data collected were analyzed and presented based on the research questions, which form the views and opinions of the respondents drawn.

In the final chapter, summaries and recommendations were made on the subject matter.

Table of Contents

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One


  • 1.0 Background of the Study
  • 1.1 Historical Background of Faith Printing Press
  • 1.2 Statement of The Problem
  • 1.3 Statements of Hypothesis
  • 1.4 Objectives of The Study
  • 1.5 Significance of The Study
  • 1.6 Scope and Limitations of The Study
  • 1.7 Definitions of Terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Definition of Business
  • 2.2 Types of Businesses
  • 2.3 Basic Management Functions needed for business operations
  • 2.4 Importance of Business to the Society
  • 2.5 Modes of Operation In Faith Printing Press
  • 2.6 Sources of Funds for Faith Printing Press
  • 2.7. Reasons for Business Failure
  • References

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population Sample Size of the Study
  • 3.3 Sampling Techniques Used
  • 3.4 Instrument Used in Data Collection
  • 3.5 Procedures for the Administration of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Statistical Techniques Used

Chapter Four

Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.0 Introduction
  • 4.1 Test of Hypothesis
  • 4.2 Test of hypothesis observed and expected frequency table based on table sixteen
  • 4.3 Conclusion

Chapter Five

Summary of Findings, Conclusions & Recommendations

  • 5.0 Introduction
  • 5.1 Summary of Major Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusions
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Background of the Study

Business is absolutely a complex activity. This is because it involves a lot of technicalities ranging from the task of planning to control of such plans in order to achieve the desire objectives of profit maximization. It is in view of this, that this study is mainly centered on the floating of a business to a stage where it finds it difficult to keep it’s head above water.

In the late 70s business was in its period of boom, the economy was doing well at that point in time and the exchange rate was appreciable within this period. International trade was easy as a result of lesser trade restrictions and foreign exchange control.

During this period, Faith printing press was a beneficiary of the prevailing policies such as the importation of papers and other printing materials. These goods were usually tax free by the agencies concerned, as a result of the significance the government attaches to the publishing sector and the clearance procedures at the port were effective and efficient then.

In the late 80’s as a result of the military take-over, various decrees and policies came into place. The economy became unbearable for the citizens and their purchasing power became very low, thereby forcing business not to live up to their required billing. What followed was that industries started operating on short run, and later businesses started folding up.

The various trade restrictions, VAT policies on goods imported did not help matters. The result effect of all these, was folding up of businesses. Against the business affected was then within our locality the -Faith printing press. The concerns shown people in the locality spearheaded an agenda to resuscitate the company and prevent it from total collapse.

The process of doing this proved difficult due to the extent of funds require to source for foreign exchange needed for the importation of raw materials there were other problems that seem intractable. But the people and company unite make persistence efforts to resuscitate the company but the more difficult problems that resulted, Motivated an interest to study the problems of business failure and the possible solutions.

1.1 Historical Background of Faith Printing Press

Faith printing press is a sole proprietorship business. It is own by Chief Gabriel O. Faith. It was established on 20th August 1969 and was situated at V.V.I Lagos/Keffi Street, Uyo.

Faith printing press was set-up with the objective of providing the best quality printing jobs to customers at affordable prices and at the due appointed time. At the early life of the press, it started with letterpress and binding machine. Namely: Adana, Letterpress Heidelberg and Cutting Machines.

In the course of expansion, the press relocated to N.C-.3 Oshogbo Road, Uyo in 1979. The press increased its machineries by purchasing Rota prints, plate maker, camera, and kond. During this period the press has increased its area of specialization from letter press to offset printing.

In 1985, the press moved to J.11 main street Badarawa Uyo and finally relocated to its permanent site V.V. 15 Nassarawa Road, Uyo in June 1993. in its present site, it has acquired additional machines such as multilith 1850, Stitching machine, computers and Ruling machines.

This organization is engaged in the publishing of companies Annual reports, text-books, invoices, Receipts calendars, invitation cards, Business cards e.t.c. Faith printing press is an organization worthy to be emulated, Judging by its achievement within the period of its existence. The organization has render a lot of its services to prominent companies & government parastatals within this country, among them are: Nitel Headquarters- Lagos, National electric power authority Uyo, Uyo state water board, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Bayero University Kano, Nice Top papers industries Uyo etc.

Below is a sample of what Faith printing press Organizational chart should look like.

  • Managing
  • Director
  • Press maintenance
  • Manager manager/ engineer
  • Production
  • Cashier
  • Cashier Receptionist
  • Lithographer printing section
  • Finishing section
  • Apprentices Apprentices Apprentices
  • Drivers Gate men

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Business entrepreneurs today are making a lot of efforts in order to make their investment a perpetual going concern. Every means available at their disposal are being made available terms of capital base sophisticated equipments etc so as to meet-business demands and sustain the completive market environment.

How ever inspite of these tremendous effort businesses are still failing and these are owing to various factors that pose myriads of problems.

1.3 Statements of Hypothesis

The following hypothesis has been formulated to serve as a guide for this study:-

  1. That efficient management of resources could not lead to business failure of _Faith printing press
  2. That inefficient management of resource could lead to business failure in Faith printing press.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

This study intends to achieve the following objective

  1. To find out how Faith printing press should operate to avoid failure.
  2. To examine the implications of government economic policies on the survival or failure of Faith printing press.
  3. To find out and how to avoid business collapse with reference to Faith printing press
  4. To examine the use and control of resources in Faith printing press.

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is significant in that its will also identify possible mistakes if any, which could lead to business failure.

It will also point out possible solutions to business failure with reference to Faith printing press, Uyo. It will be also investigate some important factors to be considered before setting up a business and those that will be implemented in the course of business.

Finally, the study will be useful to the management of Faith printing press, Uyo as it will help in tackling the problems militating against the operations of the company.

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study is untaken to find out the fundamental obstacles of business failure and possible solutions for a sustainable economic development with a case study of Faith printing press Uyo. The study is concerned in the first place with the source of funds available for printing press firms and then their management system i.e its efficiency; it will appraise these two factors and provide possible solutions.

The selected firm is a small printing press, it however engages in different types of activities ranging from supplies, printing contacts and binding.

The limitations of this study are many, though not unfamiliar, as every project work deals with such limits, it includes the following:-

  1. The time limit for the submission of this project will not be sufficient. this is due to the compressed academic calendar that makes up a semester during which the research work is being made.
  2. In adequate finance.
  3. Lack of full co-operation from officials/workers of Faith printing press whose views are important to this topic.

Despite these difficulties it is the hope of the researcher that this study will be of value to future researchers and also printing (private) operators.

1.7 Definitions of Terms

This is an attempt which is aimed at explaining and defining of terms and abbreviations used according to the meaning of the contexts. Such terms includes the following:-

a. Liquidation:

This is a process where a company can no longer Maximize profit and is being forced to wind up.

b. Overhead Cost:

These are the cost incurred as a result of involvement in production of goods and services.

c. Working Capital:

This is the amount set aside for the running of the business.

d. Management:

The authorities that are concerned with decision making

e. Cash Book:

This is a principal book account used for reading business transaction.

f. Capacity:

Ability to hold, contain, get hold of, learn Things, qualities ideal etc.

g. Effective:

Is the ability to produce good result, the power to achieve desire goal or objectives

h. Efficient:

All the means or ways use in producing a desire to satisfactory result.

i. Enterprise:

A business unit that needs courage on that offers difficulties.

j. Problems:

Difficult situation, question, a question proposed for solution or discussion.

k. Objective:

Are the goals, aims, and missions, desire targets that an organization must accomplish in other to stay in business.

l. Plan:

Forecast, an action, method or programme worth out before hand. To draw or desire a plan for Generally plan are goals and objectives which in organization seeks to seeks not to achieve which an organization seeks to achieve in executions of its responsibilities.

m. Rule of Thumb:

Something that is the usual practice habit.

n. Motivation:

Incentives that propel or arouse one to put in more effort.

Chapter Five

Summary of Findings, Conclusions & Recommendations

5.0 Introduction

From chapter four, the result are presented in this chapter with variable conclusions drawn from the research findings and appropriate recommendations for the improvement of business and also providing possible solutions that will avert business failures.

5.1 Summary of Major Findings

From chapter four, the following are the findings that are related to the hypothesis of the research work.

From table iv it was found out that the company is largely made up of unskilled staff (66.7%) as a result there is a poor management. Also table 5 reaffirmed that only 50% of the staffs are educationally sound in business management rather printing technology.

The respondent in table 12 indicate the need for further capital to implement its operations.

In table 16, the respondents accounting for about 66.8 felt that the company in need of good management finally in table 15 the respondent appear to all agreed that the company relay much on electricity which we all know is epileptic. The company also used generator to combat electricity failure, which is 25% and inadequate and sub-standard to implement the companies line of operations.

5.2 Conclusions

This project work was carried out to know the problems of business failure and possible solutions with part reference to Faith printing press Uyo.

The method used in collecting questionnaires were analysed in the forth chapter and hypothesis testing was also made in the same chapter and conclusion made also.

5.3 Recommendations

This aspect of project deals with the problematic areas highlighted and brought to focus during this study. It is anticipated that areas of weakness will be improved upon if the recommendations listed below are fully implemented:-

  1. It is recommended that efforts should be made to employ educationally sound staffs in printing technology to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in her operations.
  2. Since the analysis also shows that poor infrastructure is contributing to the company’s failure, the company should find ways of repairing the road or notifying the appropriate authorities concern to come and see to the matter.
  3. Retained profits and other sources of funds should be devised by the company to fund it’s operations.
  4. Highly modernized diesel generator should be put in place to prevent further power failure.

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