Coverage Of Security Issues In Nigeria By The Punch And The Nation Newspapers From July – December 2022

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Coverage Of Security Issues In Nigeria By The Punch And The Nation Newspapers From July – December 2022


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess the coverage of security issues in Nigeria by the Punch And The Nation newspapers from July – December 2022 The study was specifically set to find out whether the Punch And The Nation newspapers reported insecurity issues in Nigeria from July – December 2022, find out the forms of insecurity issues reported by the Punch And The Nation newspapers from July – December 2022, find out whether the Punch And The Nation newspapers have been accurate and timely in reporting security issue in Nigeria between July – December 2022, and determine whether there was a significance difference on the effectiveness of the Punch And The Nation newspapers in the coverage of insecurity issues in Nigeria between July – December 2022. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of newspapers readers in Ikorodu, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the Punch And the Nation newspapers reported insecurity issues in Nigeria from July – December 2022. Furthermore, the study revealed that the Punch And the Nation newspapers have not been accurate and timely in reporting security issue in Nigeria between July – December 2022. Therefore, it is recommended that the government must be proactive in dealing with security issues and threats, through training, modern methods of intelligence gathering, and intelligence sharing, logistics and deploying advanced technology in managing security challenges. This will add more values in checking incessant bombings, robbery, kidnapping and violent crimes/crises by hoodlums in the country. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

One contemporary and recurring challenge facing the Nigerian state is the problem of insecurity which has pervaded almost all parts of the nation. The menace of insecurity is becoming outrageous and devoid of feasible, notable and lasting solution in the current dispensation. Nigerian citizens now sleep with one eye open as a result of insecurity facing the nation. While the spate of insecurity continues, the involvement of certain agencies of government like the police, the army, state security services (SSS) is noticeable. Apart from these agencies and insecurity outfits, the mass media is an important institution that is imperative in the moves to reposition the nation’s security system and restoration of peace at all levels.

The media’s functions of surveillance and correlation are at the center of rallying against acts of insecurity. The surveillance role gives the media the ample opportunity to provide information to the society which is used in opinion molding and attitude adoption. The correlation role allows the media relay news and various happenings in the society to the individuals’ life and environment. They do this through interpreting and explaining the consequences of happenings on the lives of the masses, including the consequences of acts that can encourage insecurity on the society. Through effective information, it is expected that the society would slowly but steadily turn against such acts. Orhewere and Kur (2004) notes that the most important role of the newspaper among other media is in helping to reduce insecurity issues or prevent them totally. In bringing to limelight and tackling vices, publicity is very important.

In making the society uncomfortable for such acts to thrive, raising awareness is essential. There is need for total emphasis on conflict and terrorism reporting in the interest of the public. However, the newspaper media have also faced a barrage of accusations of contributing in worsening the state of insecurity and conflicts in Nigeria due to reportage primarily aimed at maximizing profit and increasing audience base. Nevertheless, the media the has encountered numerous barriers which affected its effectiveness in reporting insecurity cases to the masses. Some of the barriers include; terrorism, lack of proper research and also investigation, the reluctance of people to supply information on terrorists, the fear of attack by terrorists, engaging in self censorship due to the fear of victimization, absence of insurance policy for journalists, inadequate remuneration, and lack of access to the scene of terrorist acts, and security threats. (Udoudo and Diriyai, 2012).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the challenges that draws the attention of both the populace and the government of a particular society is the security of lives and property. As such, a breach of security, either in the nature of kidnapping, abduction, bomb explosion, or other means, arouses public interest and anxiety. To that end, the public is seek for accurate and dependable information about the WHY, WHEN, and WHERE of the unpalatale scenario (Inyang, 2009). With the increasing security threats in Nigeria, it is crucial to keep the public informed about the situation of internal insecurity, precautions, and governmental efforts. To accomplish this, the mass media must be accurate, dependable, and effective in delivering such essential information to the general public (Kyrian, 2017).

Over the years, the mass media has been deeply involved in the crave for adequate security in Nigeria but the level of their involvement has been hampered by certain environmental forces. Such forces are discernible in the areas of unnecessary tortures of journalists, confiscation of their equipment, seizure of copies of printed material for circulation, incessant killings of journalists covering crisis and insecurity situations. Whereas, the duty of the press is to monitor and disclose areas of security challenges in a nation, the freedom to do that is lacking as a result of the above.

Coupled with the above problem is the introduction of bias by media practitioners to their reportage which has brought them in collision with the authority. Journalists therefore discharge their duties with sentiments as a result of their strong attachment to ethnic and religious affinity. In regard of the above, this study seek to examine the newspapers coverage of security issues in Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The basic aim of this study is to critically analyze the coverage of security issues in Nigeria by the Punch And The Nation newspapers from July – December 2022. Specifically, the study will;

  1. Find out whether the Punch And The Nation newspapers reported insecurity issues in Nigeria from July – December 2022.
  2. Find out the forms of insecurity issues reported by the Punch And The Nation newspapers from July – December 2022.
  3. Find out whether the Punch And The Nation newspapers have been accurate and timely in reporting security issue in Nigeria between July – December 2022.
  4. Determine whether there was a significance difference on the effectiveness of the Punch And The Nation newspapers in the coverage of insecurity issues in Nigeria between July – December 2022.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions:

  1. Did the Punch And the Nation newspapers report insecurity issues in Nigeria from July – December 2022?
  2. What are the forms of insecurity issues reported by the Punch And The Nation newspapers from July – December 2022?
  3. Were the Punch And the Nation newspapers accurate and timely in reporting security issue in Nigeria between July – December 2022?
  4. Was there a significance difference on the effectiveness of the Punch And The Nation newspapers in the coverage of insecurity issues in Nigeria between July – December 2022?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The Punch And the Nation newspapers were not accurate and timely in reporting security issue in Nigeria between July – December 2022.
  • Ha: The Punch And the Nation newspapers were accurate and timely in reporting security issue in Nigeria between July – December 2022.

1.6 Significance of the study

The study can be justified by the growing challenges and threats posed by the insurgents in the national and international scene and the interest of the vulnerable and the insurgents to read newspapers for their information. In the words of Yusha’u (2010) commenting on the importance of the newspapers in resolving issues of public concern, “it is imperative to note that some of the key players in the first republic like Dr Nnamdi Azikwe and Chief Obefemi Awolowo were newspaper publishers”. This according to Agbaje (1993:459) “meant that the press had become inextricably linked with the emerging pattern of political rivalries often couched in geo-ethnic terms.” Cognizant of the above fact, studying newspapers in the context of rivalries which Boko Haram movement is one of, will help in proffering solutions to the problem.

Government and the media organizations can use the data generated from the study to plan for the containment of the spread of the insurgency. In addition, the study will serve as a guide to future researchers in the area of insurgency and its results can supply vital information to the policy makers in Nigeria and Diaspora to strategize their mission of peace-making in African countries and the globe.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study generally focuses on the coverage of security issues in Nigeria by the Punch And The Nation newspapers from July – December 2022. The respondent for this study will comprise of newspaper readers in Ikorodu, Lagos State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Media:

This is the main means of mass communication (broadcasting, publishing, and the internet) regarded collectively.

Print Media:

This is the means of mass communication in the form of printed publications, such as newspapers and magazines.

Newspaper:

A printed publication (usually issued daily or weekly) consisting of folded unstapled sheets and containing news, articles, advertisements, and correspondence.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the coverage of security issues in Nigeria by the Punch And The Nation newspapers from July – December 2022. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the coverage of security issues in Nigeria by the Punch And The Nation newspapers from July – December 2022. The study is was specifically carried out to find out whether the Punch And The Nation newspapers reported insecurity issues in Nigeria from July – December 2022, find out the forms of insecurity issues reported by the Punch And The Nation newspapers from July – December 2022, find out whether the Punch And The Nation newspapers have been accurate and timely in reporting security issue in Nigeria between July – December 2022, and determine whether there was a significance difference on the effectiveness of the Punch And The Nation newspapers in the coverage of insecurity issues in Nigeria between July – December 2022.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were newspapers readers in Ikorodu, Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that

  1. The Punch And the Nation newspapers reported insecurity issues in Nigeria from July – December 2022.
  2. The forms of insecurity issues reported by the Punch And the Nation newspapers from July – December 2022 among others include; banditary, terriorism, thuggery, herders-farmers comflict, and police brutality.
  3. The Punch And the Nation newspapers have not been accurate and timely in reporting security issue in Nigeria between July – December 2022.
  4. There was a significance difference on the effectiveness of the Punch And The Nation newspapers in the coverage of insecurity issues in Nigeria between July – December 2022.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. The Federal Government (FG) should formulate and effectively implement policies and programmes capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria –such as Ethno- religious conflict, systemic and political corruption, weak security system and unemployment among others.
  2. Federal government should establish a more viable and result oriented agency capable of addressing the problem of abject poverty/ unemployment among large population of Nigerians, this will aid in reducing the level of crime and violence in the country.
  3. Government must be proactive in dealing with security issues and threats, through training, modern methods of intelligence gathering, and intelligence sharing, logistics and deploying advanced technology in managing security challenges. This will add more values in checking incessant bombings, robbery, kidnapping and violent crimes/crises by hoodlums in the country.
  4. Federal government should include Security Management in school curriculum at all levels of education in Nigeria. This will enable the Nigerian youths to appreciate the importance of security in a secular state like Nigeria.

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