Counselling For Sustainable Livelihoods With Target Clients (The Nigerian Adolescents And Youths)

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Counselling For Sustainable Livelihoods With Target Clients (The Nigerian Adolescents And Youths)


Abstract


This study was carried out on counselling for sustainable livelihoods with target clients using the Nigerian adolescents and youths in Ganjuwa local government area as case study. To achieve this 3 research questions were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of youths and adolescents in Ganjuwa local government area of Bauchi State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 125 respondents while all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage. The result of the findings reveals that unemployment contribute to unsustainable livelihoods among Nigeria’s adolescents and youths, the study also revealed that counselling will play a significant role in establishing sustainable livelihoods among Nigerian adolescents and young people. And in other to achieve sustainable livelihoods among Nigeria’s adolescents and youths the following needs to be considered for implementation; access to quality education, adequate implementation of poverty alleviation programs, adequate functionality of the DFID Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and counseling/supporting the youths to engage in self employment ventures. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that career guidance should be provided for youths and young once in other to assist them make career choice in areas of manpower needs. As a matter of urgency, there should be introduction of formal vocational education right from the basic education level. Additionally, empowerment of the youth is a must to enable them make their own contribution to national development, this can only be achieved through direct guidance that prepares the youth as creator of employment rather than being consumer of labour, and education curriculum and standards of education should be reviewed from time to time to reflect the needs and aspirations of the society. More so, career orientation should be given to assist the young ones to have clear and worthy information about the world of work and what is required from individuals to enter into any job. And parents should only guide and not impose career on their children as interest, and personality are factors in career success. Lastly, entrepreneurial skills should be developed in young ones to make them think along the path of entering into vocations relevant to the needs of the society, as they create and sell their own ability.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The increasing rate of unemployment in Nigeria is fast becoming a popular subject matter. It is the ideal cynical mechanism, which accounts for why many crimes abound in the society. The quick excuse from most youth, who indulge themselves in anti-social crime, is unemployment. And for obvious reasons, it has also become the most appealing topic of deliberation in the country. This menace can be appropriately handled if entrepreneurial development is adequately encouraged through vocational education. Entrepreneurship as seen in this study is the skill to develop new adventures or apply a new technique to an old business. It entails risks, identifies business opportunity, gathers resources, initiates action and establishes an organization or enterprise to meet such demand or market opportunity. This study presents evidence that promoting entrepreneurship development through Vocational Education can be an effective way of tackling unemployment in Nigeria. The findings also showed that unemployment is a global problem in Nigeria and empowering the youth is a sure ways of diversifying the economic. conclusion and recommendation were also drawn from the study outlines the history and evolution of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach to Poverty Reduction. As well as defining main concepts and key principles, it introduces the DFID Sustainable Livelihoods Framework as a tool for analysing poverty. It also explains the need to research poverty at household level, as well as the importance of investigating internal power dynamics within households explores the different elements of the DFID Sustainable Livelihoods Framework in depth. It defines and illustrates key aspects of the Vulnerability Context and demonstrates how they affect livelihood assets and strategies. It also examines how Policies, Institutions and Processes enable or disable people’s livelihoods, while promoting an awareness of power relations throughout. Finally, it explains the difference between coping and adaptive strategies in terms of their impact on assets and outcomes.

Provides practical guidance on how to conduct a Sustainable Livelihoods Analysis in the field. It outlines the links between the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach/Framework and participatory research methodologies and tools. In order to demonstrate best practice, it provides a step-by-step account of a FAO Sustainable Livelihoods Analysis, followed by a Questions and Answers session with the research consultant who conducted it.

Explores practical ways to influence Poverty Reduction using the Approach and Framework. It explores some key mistakes made by development practitioners when designing projects and programmes, while offering some examples of Sustainable Livelihoods best practice in the field. It concludes with an in-depth interview with Oxfam Ireland’s Livelihoods Programme Co-ordinator.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Nigeria’s unemployment rate has risen to the point that it can no longer be handled by a simple campaign or word of mouth. To create a long-term solution, it took the joint efforts of both people and the government of the country in general, as well as the rest of the globe. Unemployment in Nigeria has had a wide range of socio-economic consequences for the young and the country’s economic growth. Unemployment, particularly among graduates, obstructs Nigeria’s growth in a variety of ways. Apart from the economic waste it has caused, it has also caused political turmoil in the country (Ipaye, 1998). According to Ezie (2012), Nigeria’s unemployment situation is alarming, and it’s much more depressing that the country’s economic position prevents it from absorbing an ideal proportion of its labor force. Because an idle mind is always the devil’s workshop, this circumstance has led to the recent surge in crimes and other social vices experienced in our society. Another issue affecting Nigeria’s job status is the generation of electricity. Nigeria’s inadequate electricity generation has contributed to the country’s high unemployment rate. Despite the efforts of both the previous and current administrations to resolve the problem of epileptic power supply, the country has seen little or no improvement. Because of the electricity crisis, companies, organizations, and agencies that are supposed to offer much-needed employment are fleeing the country in search of better possibilities, leaving our workforce unemployed. This paper is dedicated to addressing some of these issues.


1.3 Objective of the Study Objective

The overall goal of the research is to:

  1. Investigate whether unemployment contributes to unsustainable livelihoods among Nigeria’s adolescents and youths.
  2. Investigate if counselling plays a positive role in establishing sustainable livelihoods among Nigerian adolescents and young people.
  3. Investigate ways in which sustainable livelihoods for Nigeria’s adolescents and youths can be achieved.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guide the objective of the study.

  1. Does unemployment contribute to unsustainable livelihoods among Nigeria’s adolescents and youths?
  2. Will counselling play a positive role in establishing sustainable livelihoods among Nigerian adolescents and young people?
  3. What are the ways sustainable livelihoods among Nigeria’s adolescents and youths can be achieved?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This research will also add to the current body of literature on this subject and will also act as a resource for academics, researchers, and students interested in conducting future research on this or a similar topic.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The research covers the assessment of counselling for sustainable livelihoods with target clients (Nigerian adolescents and youths) and it will look into the causes of unsustainable livelihoods among Nigerian adolescents and youths as well as possible solutions.


1.7 Limitation of Study

The study was limited to the youths and adolescents of Nigeria. Therefore, all conclusions would be based on the response of that particular region.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Counselling:

The provision of professional assistance and guidance in resolving personal or psychological problems.

Sustainable Livelihoods:

Sustainable livelihoods emerge at the intersection of development and environmental studies to offer a new way to think about work, especially the work of vulnerable populations.

Adolescents:

People aged 10-19 years

And Youths:

Youth are those between 15-24 years old.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the counselling for sustainable livelihoods with target clients using the Nigerian adolescents and youths in Ganjuwa local government area as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the counselling for sustainable livelihoods with target clients using the Nigerian adolescents and youths in Ganjuwa local government area as case study. The study specifically was aimed at Investigating whether unemployment contributes to unsustainable livelihoods among Nigeria’s adolescents and youths, investigating if counselling plays a positive role in establishing sustainable livelihoods among Nigerian adolescents and young people and investigating ways in which sustainable livelihoods for Nigeria’s adolescents and youths can be achieved.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are youths and adolescents in Ganjuwa local government area of Bauchi State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Unemployment contribute to unsustainable livelihoods among Nigeria’s adolescents and youths.
  2. Counselling will play a significant role in establishing sustainable livelihoods among Nigerian adolescents and young people.
  3. In other to achieve sustainable livelihoods among Nigeria’s adolescents and youths the following needs to be considered for implementation; access to quality education, adequate implementation of poverty alleviation programs, adequate functionality of the DFID Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and counseling/supporting the youths to engage in self employment ventures.

5.4 Recommendations

In regard to the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that;

  1. Career guidance should be provided for youths and young once in other to assist them make career choice in areas of manpower needs.
  2. As a matter of urgency, there should be introduction of formal vocational education right from the basic education level.
  3. Empowerment of the youth is a must to enable them make their own contribution tonational development, this can only be achieved through direct guidance that prepares the youth as creator of employment rather than being consumer of labour.
  4. Education curriculum and standards of education should be reviewed from time to time to reflect the needs and aspirations of the society.
  5. Career orientation should be given to assist the young ones to have clear and worthy information about the world of work and what is required from individuals to enter into any job.
  6. Parents should only guide and not impose career on their children as interest, and personality are factors in career success.
  7. Entrepreneurial skills should be developed in young ones to make them think along the path of entering into vocations relevant to the needs of the society, as they create and sell their own ability.

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