A Correlational Analysis Of School Management Motivational Strategies And Staff Retention

Project and Seminar Material for Human Resource Management (HRM)

A Correlational Analysis Of School Management Motivational Strategies And Staff Retention


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the correlational analysis of school management motivational strategies and staff retention using some selected secondary schools in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state as a case study. The study was carried out to find out whether school managements implements motivational strategies in secondary schools, determine the influence of monetary incentives on the retention of staff in secondary school in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state, establish the influence of non-monetary incentives on the retention of staff in secondary school in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state, establish the influence of work schedule flexibility on the retention of staff in public secondary school in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state and examine the influence of career development prospects on the retention of teachers in public secondary school in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected secondary schools in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 41 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool SPSS v23.The result of the findings reveals that monetary incentives have a significant influence on the retention of staff in secondary school. The study also revealed that career development prospects have a significant influence on the retention of staff in secondary school. Therefore, it is recommended that the stakeholders in secondary schools should be sensitized on the importance of motivational practices to teachers since it was found that lack of provision of incentives, lack of career development programs lack of flexible schedule in schools influences teachers’ retention. They can therefore impalement them in their respective schools as initiatives to improve on teachers retention. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

All institutions have goals and objectives to accomplish and this defines their reason for existence. Effective management in these institutions is a necessary tool in improving an enabling working environment in which all workers work together as a team and as individuals towards the accomplishment of the organization’s set goals (Das & Baruah, 2013). Therefore, recognizing and understanding how and why employees are motivated, is a central point for every organization (Maicibi, 2003).

In schools, teachers and students are always on the look out to gain fame, to be praised, to be promoted or even to gain material rewards from their supervisor, parents, guardians and teachers (Michel, 2015). The reverse may mean low morale in performance or even abandoning the activity (Akyeampong, 2007). Motivating the staff is a necessary tool at the work place for it incites, influences one’s actions and behaviors towards the intended desired goals and depending on how they are motivated, determines the efforts that is exerted at a particular time, situation and needs of individuals (Dessler, 2003).

Employee retention is the ability of an organization to retain its employees (Das & Baruah, 2013). According to Kageha and Orina (2008) employee retention refers to the function within an institution that focuses on motivating, orientation, training of teachers and providing direction for the teachers who work in the institution that will enhance job satisfaction. Monetary incentives are the bedrock of today’s employee motivation and change management programs (Michel, 2015). The logic is simple and straightforward: change the monetary incentives and the desired behavior will occur.

According to Johnson, Kraft and Papay, (2012) non-monetary incentives include praises and appreciation, promotion, recognition and approval by parents, the general public and ministry of education. It is believed that when a teacher is given such motivation, the performance is influenced positively and thus to their retention (Ayiorwoth, 2008). Paying attention to the career development of employed people will enable employees realize their full potentials and make them aware of learning, work, civic and leisure opportunities, career guidance helps to build confidence and empower individuals. Work schedule flexibility is a very important phenomenon that is of great concern to various employees in both private and public sector. It goes beyond prioritizing the work role and one’s personal life. It also affects the social, psychological, economical and mental well-being of the individual (Michel, 2015).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Majority of schools in Nigeria have resorted to use different motivational practices to influence teacher and improve on their performance (Kageha & Orina 2008). Despite the possible strategies (such as staff recognition, shared leadership strategies, staff development, support, and proper induction of new teachers, and feedback or supportive teacher evaluation, letters of recommendation and promotions) put in place by the administrators in order to increase the performance of teachers in secondary schools, there has been a poor retention of teachers (MoE Report, 2015).

Concern for many secondary schools, especially public secondary schools, is that there is a declining test scores and escalating poor academic and teachers’ performance. Available official records from the Education Director indicate that teachers have gone to agricultural and retail businesses strategies for a better living, (CED, 2014). Therefore, there is need to carry out a research to investigate the correlational of school management motivational strategies and staff retention.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study focuses on correlational analysis of school management motivational strategies and staff retention.

Specifically, the objectives of this study are:

  1. To find out whether school managements implements motivational strategies in secondary schools.
  2. To determine the influence of monetary incentives on the retention of staff in secondary school in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state.
  3. To establish the influence of non-monetary incentives on the retention of staff in secondary school in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state.
  4. To establish the influence of work schedule flexibility on the retention of staff in public secondary school in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state.
  5. To examine the influence of career development prospects on the retention of teachers in public secondary school in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. Does school managements in Nigeria implement motivational strategies in secondary schools?
  2. Does monetary incentives have a significant influence on the retention of staff in secondary school?
  3. Does non-monetary incentives have a significant influence on the retention of staff in secondary school?
  4. Does work schedule flexibility have a significant influence on the retention of staff in secondary school?
  5. Does career development prospects have a significant influence on the retention of staff in secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypothesis will be tested in this study:

Ho: There is no significant correlation between school management motivational strategies and staff retention in secondary school.

Ha: There is a significant correlation between school management motivational strategies and staff retention in secondary school.


1.6 Significance of the Study

People are motivated by unmet needs and these varies from person to person according to their particular circumstances, values and beliefs, family, education, personality, and work experience etc. Management aims are at maximizing profit and minimizing cost. For this to be achieved, this study provides information on how to motivate teachers towards increase productivity. This study will help many organizations especially the management to improve their understanding about motivation and its effect on teachers performance. It is expected that when employees (teachers) are given some incentives, they are likely to put more effort in discharging their duties.

Therefore, this study will be of significance to researchers, the public, the employers of labour/management of organizations and the employees as it delves into the link between teachers performance in relation to employee motivation. Management of any establishment has to put policies in place to enable the employees put in their best efforts towards the higher performance and efficiency.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine school management motivational strategies and staff retention in secondary schools. However, the study borders on monetary incentives, non-monetary incentives, work schedule flexibility, and career development prospects and how they effect on staff retention. The study will focus on teachers of selected secondary schools in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Motivation:

This is the means of activity the behavior of an individual towards the achievement of certain goals

Employee Retention:

This is the ability of an organization to retain its employees and make sure the sustainability of employees.

Teacher’s Performance:

The key aspects of teaching involve the use of instructional materials, teaching methods, regular assessment of students, making lesson plans, assessment of pupils, conduct of fieldwork, teachers, participation in sports, attending school assembly and guidance and counseling. Therefore, teacher job performance is the teacher’s ability to integrate the experience, teaching methods, instructional materials, knowledge and skills in delivering subject matter to students in and outside the classroom (Bennell, 2004).


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on a correlational analysis of school management motivational strategies and staff retention using some selected secondary schools in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on a correlational analysis of school management motivational strategies and staff retention using some selected secondary schools in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to find out whether school managements implements motivational strategies in secondary schools, determine the influence of monetary incentives on the retention of staff in secondary school in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state, establish the influence of non-monetary incentives on the retention of staff in secondary school in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state, establish the influence of work schedule flexibility on the retention of staff in public secondary school in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state and examine the influence of career development prospects on the retention of teachers in public secondary school in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers of some selected secondary schools in Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. School managements implements motivational strategies in secondary schools.
  2. Monetary incentives have a significant influence on the retention of staff in secondary school.
  3. Non-monetary incentives have a significant influence on the retention of staff in secondary school.
  4. Work schedule flexibility have a significant influence on the retention of staff in secondary school.
  5. Career development prospects have a significant influence on the retention of staff in secondary school.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The management of secondary schools should improve on compensation, supervision and psychological contract to be in a position to retain employees for a long period of time.
  2. Every school should be mandated to have BOM members appointed after gaining the required professional qualification in management skills where motivation practice is part of management skills in secondary schools.
  3. The stakeholders in secondary schools should be sensitized on the importance of motivational practices to teachers since it was found that lack of provision of incentives, lack of career development programs lack of flexible schedule in schools influences teachers’ retention. They can therefore impalement them in their respective schools as initiatives to improve on teachers retention.
  4. Existing authorities should also devise various ways to reward their teachers as an encouragement for those who have shown exemplary performance.

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