Correlation Of Demographic And Psycho-Social Factors As Correlates Of Marital Adjustment Among Couples

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology

Correlation Of Demographic And Psycho-Social Factors As Correlates Of Marital Adjustment Among Couples


Abstract


This study examined the correlation demographics and psycho social factors on marital adjustment of couples. Two hundred and six (206) couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government formed the participants of the study. The study employed simple random sampling technique (simple balloting) to select participants to this study and the Big Five Personality Inventory and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale were used to collect data for the study. Correlation result indicated that all the five personality dimensions extraversion (r = -.13, p <.05), agreeableness (r = -.36, p <.001),conscientiousness (r = -.26, p <.001), neuroticism (r = .24, p <.001) and openness to experience (r = -.33, p <.001) were significantly related to marital adjustment. Among these five dimensions of personality, only agreeableness (β= -.244, p <.01) and openness to experience (β = -.201, p <.05) made statistically significant negative contribution in predicting marital adjustment, while the other three dimensions (extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism) did not make statistically significant contributions in predicting marital adjustment. Recommendations were made as well as suggestions for further studies.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Marital relationship is the foundation of family life because it involves the union between a man and a woman as husband and wife. Marriage is a component part of the culture usually formalized by the custom, law and occasionally solemnized by religion. It is a means by which physiological, procreation, social, emotional and security needs are satisfied. (Ebenuwa-Okoh, 2003)

Human society is essentially developed from marital relationship when married persons are wedded, they always make commitment to remain in the bond of unity and love “until death do us apart”. However, available statistics of marital breakdown show that many married persons who make such vows do not keep them to the end (National Centre for Health statistic, 1994). Marital relationship has now become a global phenomenon referencing the position of father, the mother and the children, from the royal families of princes and princesses down to the peasant farmers in our contemporary time. The happenings among Nigerian married persons in the present day make one to believe there is absolute joy attached to marriages. On the other hand, marital maladjustment can exist in a situation married persons frequently nag, quarrel or fight, which may eventually lead to separation and divorce in extreme cases. Divorce is the end result of a malfunctioning marital relationship. Its traumatic effects on the society are numerous (Riches, 1991). A close look at this implications shows that some family life and marriage that does not take into cognizance adjustment in their marital status, are in for serious trouble but the aggregate understanding of individual differences as made the sustainability of such marital status much more suitable for survival(Banjo, 2001). In the same vein, Statistics have shown that in America, for example, one out of every two marriages contacted end in a divorce (National Centre for Health Statistics, 2006). This situation is not significantly different in other parts of the world, Nigeria inclusive. For example, in Nigeria, divorce statistics from the federal high court, Benin-city; showed that 99 divorces were granted within 4 years of marriage which as given rise in .

In 2000, there was a study which discussed the situation of marital maladjustment. It found out that were 23 divorces; 32 in 2001; 19 in 2002 and 25 in 2003. The lower courts, e.g. Magistrate, Area and customary probably recorded more divorce cases. The above statistics show that the rate of divorce cases is assuming a significant proportion as in marital maladjustment. The example given serves are as an insight into the unsavory fate of marriage in Nigeria. Soon after wedding, many things begin to unfold, for instance, selfishness in management of finances and poor communication flow (Ebenuwa-Okoh, 2007), Available data and experience have shown that quite a number of married persons fail to realize the marital bliss which they had earlier desired. This is because at marriage, a new and much more intimate dimension of the relationship is added. Many married persons may not have tested psychological capabilities to cope sufficiently in marriage before going into wedlock, and therefore, they cannot adjust to the demands of living together in such intimate relationship. Human society is dynamic. There are constant changes in social values mass media, science and technology. These changes have come so rapidly that the new social problems, such as several permissiveness and increase in divorce cases. These have led to new morality including the break-down of traditional norms and values. Such breakdown of values has numerous implications. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDs), unwanted pregnancies and abortions, abandonment as well as single parenthood. These implications have different dimensions and are causing great problem in the marital world. (Edelman 2005). These changes are capable of stretching family relationships to a breaking point. When this happens, love, which is the true bedrock of marriage collapses. Leading to communication breakdown. Consequently, sex life becomes unsatisfactory. Nothing holds together, and mistrust sets in (Eneh and Ndom, 1996; Agbe, 1998; Ezeh, 1998; and Mallum, 1999). This phenomenon has not been adequately researched into in our society.

The study examines the extent to which communication flow, emotional expression, work involvement; gender, personality types, and duration of marriage explain changes in gender, personality types, duration of marriage as correlate marital adjustment. Main while, marital adjustment as been characterized by series of factors attached therein which are psycho-social and demographic in nature which serves as a determinant to the longetivity of marital affairs. It must therefore be noted that one of the most important relationships between a man and women is marital adjustment. It involves emotional and legal commitment that is quite important in any adult life. Moreover, selecting a partner and entering into a marital contract are considered both maturational milestone and personal achievement. There is no doubt that the choice of marital partner is one of the most important decisions one makes in a lifetime.

In spite of the magnitude of marital adjustment that exist in Nigerian couples, the study tends to examine the demographic and psycho-social factors as correlate of marital adjustment among couples in Nigeria; using Ijebu-ode as the case-study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem.

Marital harmony is a globally important social phenomenon, which plays vital role in our life. Successful marital relationship is based on many factors but economic resources are considered to be most essential.

Hence, Interpersonal conflicts in married life can create a lot of stress among spouses and other family members that; if prolonged can also lead to psychological disturbances. It is believed that accurate knowledge of the moderating effects of these variables on marital adjustment will provide opportunity for effective and efficient marital counseling in among couples. The arrival of Wife into a family, in which many couples experience loss of sleep, long years of infertility , sexual decline, economic pressures only to mention a few as a correlation marital adjustment among couples.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The study to investigate the correlation of demographic and psycho-social factors as correlates of marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government. This is in view of the fact that interpersonal problems arises out of differences in the roles played by couples.

Specifically, this study will seek to:

  1. Determine the influence of Neuroticism on marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government
  2. Determine the influence of Extraversion on marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government
  3. Determine the influence of Openness on marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government
  4. Determine the influence of Agreeableness on marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government
  5. Determine the influence of Conscientiousness on marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government
  6. Determine the influence of spousal age difference on marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government.

1.4 Research Questions

The study sought answers to the following questions:

  1. What is the influence of Neuroticism on marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government?
  2. What is the influence of Extraversion on marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government?
  3. What is the influence of Openness on marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government?
  4. What is the influence of Agreeableness on marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government?
  5. What is the influence of Conscientiousness on marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government?
  6. What is the influence of spousal age difference on marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. Personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to experience, and Neuroticism) will significantly predict marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government.
  2. Spousal age difference will significantly predict marital adjustment among couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Martial adjustment as been caused by various factors which are demographic variables and psycho-social factors. The study tends to established the factors responsible for adjustment couples marital affairs, the study stands the position to established a strategies for separated homes.

Clearly, creating strategies on how to deal with marital issues in Nigerian society. The study describes the position of stakeholders in the business of counseling and guidance, the provision of family therapeutic devices for emerging families.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study covers Ijebu-ode Local Government which is set to examine the demographic and psycho-social factors as correlate of marital adjustment among couples.


1.8 Limitation to the Study

This study would be limited to the city of Ijebu-ode, it should have covered more than the city of Ijebu-ode Local Government but this was however proved abortive due to the following reasons below;

  1. Time factor: The researcher had limited time and thus was not able to cover a wide location within a short period.
  2. Holiday also limits the scope of the study as there is break and sometimes strike actions in government schools and the researcher had no time to be wasted.

Nevertheless, it is hoped that the result of the study at the end would not be affected by the identified limitations.


1.9 Definition of Terms

1. Demographic:

This involves the entirety of an individual which are age , gender, occupation, financial status, e.t.c

2. Psycho-Social:

This are human emotions, intelligent level, orientation level and communication with the ecosystem.

3. Marital Adjustment:

Marital or dyadic adjustment may be conceptualized as a process and the outcome is determined by the amount of troublesome dyadic differences, interpersonal tensions and personal anxiety, dyadic satisfaction, matters relating to marital functioning, these aspects of adjustment are applicable to both married and unmarried couples.

4. Couples:

This are relationship which have agreed to come together in good terms in bid to achieve marital goals and also cooperate to give birth to children.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary of Finding, Conclusions and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the correlation demographics and psycho social factors on marital adjustment of couples, couples in Ijebu-Ode local Government as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of Finding

  1. Correlation result indicated that all the five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience) were significantly related to marital adjustment. Neuroticism is positively related and the other four dimensions are negatively related. Gender, which spouse is older and spousal age difference showed insignificant negative relationship with marital adjustment.
  2. Among the five dimensions of personality, only agreeableness and openness to experience made statistically significant negative contribution in predicting marital adjustment, while the other three dimensions (extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism) did not make statistically significant contributions in predicting marital adjustment.
  3. It was also found that spousal age difference, gender and which of the spouse is older did not make statistically significant contribution in predicting marital adjustment.

5.3 Conclusion

This study examined the correlation demographics and psycho social factors on marital adjustment of couples. Two hundred and six (206) married couples formed the participants of the study. The study employed simple random sampling technique (simple balloting) to select participants to this study and used the Big Five Personality Inventory and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale to collect data for the study.

Correlation result indicated that all the five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience) were significantly related to marital adjustment. Neuroticism is positively related and the other four dimensions are negatively related. Gender, which spouse is older and spousal age difference showed insignificant negative relationship with marital adjustment.

Among the five dimensions of personality, only agreeableness and openness to experience made statistically significant negative contribution in predicting marital adjustment, while the other three dimensions (extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism) did not make statistically significant contributions in predicting marital adjustment.

It was also found that spousal age difference, gender and which of the spouse is older did not make statistically significant contribution in predicting marital adjustment.


5.3 Recommendation

With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;

  1. Partner intimacy for couples should be promoted within appropriate and approved settings due to the significant influence demonstrated in this research.
  2. A curriculum that addresses factors that contribute to marital satisfaction should be developed for educating young people, dating couples, engaged couples, and married couples. One way of doing this is to have a partnership with Educational and Family Ministries departments and institutions of higher education in an effort to develop educational materials on conflict resolution skills for use in schools and churches. Another approach by these two departments could be to work together in developing appropriate family life materials for use in local religious institutes in an effort to prepare young people for marriage, as well as to nurture existing marriages within each local church.
  3. Relevant governing authorities should ensure family life professionals are made available to provide the necessary educational interventions that are required to address these marital issues.

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