Coordinating And Subordinating Conjunctions In Uda

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Coordinating And Subordinating Conjunctions In Uda


This work on coordinating and subordinating conjunctions in Uda sets out to investigate the structure of coordinators and subordinators. The work aims at providing a syntactic and semantic account of both conjunctions examining carefully the distinctions between them and their significance in sentence formation. The type of instrumentation used for this research work was based on the Ibadan 400 basic wordlist. The study is also concerned with the identification and distribution of the position and functions of major conjunctions found in Uda. We also observed that the usage of conjunctions in clauses and sentences in Uda are quite similar to what obtains in Enwang. The research reveals that Uda has both coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.

Chapter One


Background of the Study

Uda People / Language

According to Williamson and Blench (2000), Uda is a language of the lower cross sub – group of the New Benue Congo family. The people of Uda occupy the area called Uda in the riverine area of Mbo Local government area of Akwa Ibom State. They are believed to belong to one of the earliest immigrants of Otong, being the ancestor of Uda people. The major occupation of Uda people are fishing and farming.

The Uda people migrated from Israel and settled first at Cameroon before migrating and settling at Ebughu. Later, they left Ebughu and moved over to their present domain. After Ebughu, the largest community in Mbo local government area, Uda which is the second largest community shares boundaries in the North with Ebughu, South with Efiat, East by Ewang and West with Esit Eket Local Government Area.

The total population of Uda is about 10,000 people (Ethnologue 2009). The villages in Uda community include: Udene-uda, Afi-Uda, Ekie-Uda, Uyerghe, Amprapran-Uda, Ibakka, Orukum, Udighi, and Uko-ntigha.

The principal of Uda Community Secondary School, Mr. Nyong Inyang, explained that Uda is a variety of Ebughu, Ewang and Ibibio languages and that Uda descended from a similar language family from which they derived their language. Also there are minor variations in Uda language as observed in the different villages that make up Uda.

Indeed, uda is related to Efik, Ibibio, Oro and Ebughu and such could be called language cluster as seen in the tree diagram below:

Diagram 1

The diagram is in the complete material which you will get before the end of this page

1.1 Statement of the Problem

The study of conjunctions has received considerable attention in linguistics. Conjunctions have also been studied under numerous labels such as linkers, coordinators, subordinators and so on. This research examines carefully the types of conjunctions found in Uda and also sets out to distinguish the grammatical, syntactic and functional features of conjunctions in Uda in order to

have a better knowledge of the use and functions of these conjunctions.

The aim of the present study discusses the functions and position of conjunctions as they appear in Uda. In addition, written texts on Uda grammar are non existent. Future researchers on this aspect of grammar, could learn a few things from this work.

1.2 Objectives of the Study

The researcher considers conjunctions as having a major role to play in communication. This work sets out to investigate the use of conjunctions in Uda, and also identify the functions (roles) and position of each conjunction in Uda.

1.3 Significance of the Study

Conjunctions belong to a class of expressions which share a common set of grammatical properties (Radford 1997:37). They are among the word class or parts of speech that form the basis of English syntax as well as that of Uda. The study of conjunctions will enrich knowledge in analyzing conjunctions in Uda and practically to be a reference for the next researcher in analyzing conjunctions found in Uda.

1.4 Scope of the Study

This work on “Coordinating and Subordinating Conjunctions in Uda” lies within the domain of syntax. This research is restricted to the identification and description of the functions carried out by coordinators and subordinators in Uda language.

1.5 Organisation of the Study

The research is directed towards the identification of coordinators and subordinators in Uda language. The definitions of the subject matter, the various types, environments where they occur as well as the clause structures.

Also, the distinctions between the coordinators and subordinators will be treated and the strategies for deciding which sentences comprise coordinators and subordinators are also examined.

The research project is organized into 5 chapters

  • Chapter one; Introduces the topic, including the objectives and significance of the study
  • Chapter two; This chapter is concerned with the review of literature on the subject matter
  • Chapter three; This deals with the collection of data
  • Chapter four; focuses on the discussion of our findings on conjunctions in Uda language
  • Chapter five; Here, the work is concluded and further recommendations on the use of Uda language are suggested.

1.6 Limitations of the Study

This research work faced some limitations as a result of financial constraints, lack of support from the native speakers (speech community) as well as inadequate time for the research. Subordinating Conjunctions

Also, since there was no written document on the language, the research is limited to Oral interviews from informants. Subordinating Conjunctions

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

This study centers on Coordinating and Subordinating conjunctions in Uda- a language of the lower cross sub group of the New Benue Congo family. Also linguistic works on conjunctions, and types were reviewed. Using the information (data) gotten from our informants, we were able to recognize two sets of conjunctions in Uda; Coordinating conjunctions that join two or more items of equal grammatical/syntactic importance and subordinating conjunctions which introduce a dependent clause and join two or more items of unequal syntactic importance.

Our findings revealed that these conjunctions occur in mutually exclusive environments although there is a relationship between them; both involve the linking of units. Also the specific functions performed by each conjunction in sentence formation and clause structure were identified. Though this, the researcher was able to distinguish coordinators from subordinators. Our discussions also disclosed that Uda conjunctions perform the same or almost the same roles (functions and position) like the conjunctions found in English and Enwang languages.

Indeed, conjunctions play an important role in discourse as they are used to conjoin “different grammatical units: clauses, clause elements, words” (Leech and Svartvik 1994:264)

5.2 Recommendations

According to the Ethnologue (2009), Uda language is classed as an endangered language. Once a language is determined to be endangered, there are two (2) basic steps that need to be taken in order to stabilize or rescue the language.

The first step is language documentation- a process by which the language is documented in terms of its grammar, it s lexicon and its oral traditions (e.g. stories, songs, religious texts). It is recommended that Uda people should document their language to prevent language death.

The second step is language revitalization; the process by which a language community through political, community and educational means attempts to increase the number of active speakers of the language. Uda language should be used for local and regional mass media, at work and education. It should be used in elementary and secondary schools as a language of instruction and taught as a subject within one or more schools in the area.
Literacy in the language (Uda) should be transmitted locally through compulsory public education. Parents are advised to use the Uda language at home and learned by their children as their first language.

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