Control Of Noise Pollution And Sound Insulation In Buildings (A Case Study Of Broadcasting Studio)

Project and Seminar Material for Building Technology BT

Control Of Noise Pollution And Sound Insulation In Buildings (A Case Study Of Broadcasting Studio)


Abstract


This research entails the ways in which noise/sound is transmitted into and out of the building wind in a given environment with much emphasis on special buildings (radio station or television house). In this study, an investigation related with noise which is one of the pollution on people was carried out. The various methods of controlling the effect of such noise to agree with minimum intensity of audibility for a normal person without impaired hearing were closely examined. Hence, noise control and sound Insulation in special buildings were adequate sound proofing is needed, are achieved by good site investigations, good data collection, and analysis, effective and good approach to sound proofing techniques and the use of suitable materials. It also includes proper use of acoustic principles with regards to the various constructional methods and material available. As a result of noise measurements, the necessary measures to decrease/control this noise were specified.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Acoustics (Greek Akousin, “to hear”). Term sometimes used for the science of sound in general. It is more commonly used for the special branch of that science architectural acoustics that deals with the construction of enclosed area so as to enhance the hearing of speech or music.

For the treatment of acoustics as a branch of the pure science of physics, the acoustics of buildings was an undeveloped aspect of the study of sound until comparatively recent times. The Roman architect Marcus pollio, who lived during the first century BC made some pertinent observations on the subject and some astitute guesses concerning reverberation and interference. The scientific aspects of this subject, however, were first brought treated by the American physicist. Joseph Henry in 1856 and more fully developed by the American physicist Wallace Sabine in 1900.

Here, sound is the sensation produced by a certain range of rapid fluctuations of air pressure affecting the air mechanism. Vibrations from a source of noise excite a similar movement into the molecules of air, which result in a series of rules of increased pressure moving outwards from the original spruce. These vibrations can be transmitted not only through air, but also through elastic medium including the materials that make up the building fabrics.
Actually, for many decades, there have been much negligence of sound insulation in buildings; therefore the benefits accompanied with it could not be achieved. It is certain that man spend most of his time in the buildings and partly for outdoor activities. Lack of sound insulation in building is a nuisance to the occupants because noise can easily transmit from one room to the other or from part of the building to the other part.

One of the most researched subject a signal processing and acoustics is active noise control. This system uses sensors, micro phones and digital signal processing boards to create the antinoise of a sound. The system can create the anti-noise by manipulating the error signal with the adaptive fitters of the digital signal processor, thereby compensating in any change in the plant of the system model.

Any sound that leaks out of the studio into the neighborhood and surrounding apartment is acquired to a significant extent, as an annoyance. Hence to provide effective sound insulations in broadcasting house adequate provisions are made from the design stage to the actual execution. Construction stage.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The need for sound insulation result from the necessity to improve the comfort of the studio workers/users. This intensities the need to make the entire building free of noise, which causes discomfort or dissatisfaction to the users.

In radio or television houses, several factors contribute to sound or air pollution which include motor traffic, human traffic both on the road and which the building, improper planning of the building and its environment. The banging of doors noise emanating from other electrical/electronic equipment in the house and poor construct techniques etc.

Because of the role radio or television houses play in the sustenance of social economics and political activities in Nigeria, there arises the need to verify the causes of sound or noise penetration into studio and the possible remedy to it.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The aim and objectives of this study is to control noise pollution and sound insulation in buildings.

Specifically, the objectives of this research are:

  1. To assess the adverse impact of noise and adopting suitable control techniques for noise reduction
  2. To determine whether sound insulation enable good production and reception in buildings.
  3. To examine the way sound behaves within the space when it penetrates into it.
  4. Evaluation of the source of noise in buildings

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study is significant very because construction company will use the result and recommendations of this research to adopt insulation requirement in building construction, while the lecturers, staff and students will also use the research to adopt the development/improvement of knowledge about how to control noise and sound insulation in building especially in broadcasting studio

Furthermore, the study will be used for further research for any professional and also, for external use like the government.


1.5 Research Question

With the great importance of the research, the following questions where put up.

  1. Is lack of sound insulation in building a nuisance?
  2. Can the adoption of suitable control techniques reduce the adverse impact of noise in a studio?
  3. Is it essential to study the way sound behaves within the spaces when it penetrates into it?
  4. Does sound insulation enable good sound production and reception in building?

1.6 Delimitations

This research covers a very broad area in sound insulation, but it is limited to radio or television houses a case study of Owerri.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the study, the control of noise pollution and sound insulation in buildings, the researcher encountered some difficulties in the course of carrying out this research work, notable among them include:

The non-cooperation nature of many respondents, thinking that the researcher has something else to do with the information given other than for academic purpose.

Owing to time frame given for this study, it was not easy for the researcher to bring the work to the best standard.

Financial constraints also contributed immensely to limit the extent to which data are collected.


1.8. Definition of Terms

Noise

This is said to be an unwanted or undesired sound. Noise in physics is an acoustic, electric, or electronic signal consisting of a random mixture of wavelength.

Sound

Sound is a form, of energy emitted by a vibrating body and on reaching the ear, it causes the sensation of hearing through nerves.

Decibel

This is the measurement unit of sound, represented by DB

Acoustics

Acoustics (Greek akouein, “to hear”), term sometimes used for the science of sound in general. It is commonly used for the special branch of that science, architectural acoustics, that deals with the construction of enclosed areas so as to enhance the hearing of speech or music.

Ear

This is the organ of hearing and balance. Only vertebrates or animals with backbones have ears.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

This chapter projects summary reviews of the study, draws appropriate conclusions and proffer recommendations on the basis of the findings.


5.1 Summary

This study was conducted to the control of noise pollution and sound. Insulation in building the sample size for the study was 20 (twenty). The area of the study comprises all the broadcasting studios in Owerri. The researcher picked both builders and staff working in broadcasting and also some other professional builders.

A structured questionnaire was constructed and used for data instrument. The data collected were presented in table with percentages.


5.2 Conclusion

Sound and its accompanying effect on building occupants is a continuous phenomenon that cannot be entirely avoided. Although noise cannot be eradicated entirely from the building, but it can be checked to a barest minimum by employing various noise controlled measures.

In achieving this, noise control should not be left to the contractors only, but every authority in building industry should strike a balance in achieving this goal. They should see to it that sound insulation is considered at the inception of the design. And all radio or television houses should be adequately soundproof with regards to its significance in the media industry.

Finally various sound proofing measures are equally high lighted in this project work of which if apply would as well check the effect of noise.


5.3 Recommendations

Soundproofing is an important aspect in building design and construction that cannot be relegated to the background. Effects of negligence cannot be over emphasized especially in recording and broadcasting houses.

Therefore noise control measures discussed in the work should be strictly followed.

Moreover, to ensure maximum comfort to the building users and the effectiveness of the various elements in building, I therefore recommend the followings:

  1. During design stage, sound and its effect in building should be given reasonable consideration.
  2. Before design, a study on the anticipated noise source and the type of noise should be conducted on a particular building environment in order to know the best control measures to be adopted.
  3. Drawings and specification for sound insulation should always be made available by specialist in sound proofing as part of contract documents.
  4. Finally, government should enact laws to checkment the incessant noise pollution through human activities.

5.4 Limitation of the Study

A research of this is not an easy task. The scope of the study was within the confines of the owerri L.G.A as whole objectives. For that reason the work covered all the whole broadcasting studios in Owerri.

The quality of the research work of this particular topic would better be enhanced it the researcher would have enough time to go about it in getting information. Also financial constraints affected the research work as money was very much needed to pursue everything even transportation.


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