The Contributions Of Vigilante Groups In Crime Control In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

The Contributions Of Vigilante Groups In Crime Control In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Provision of adequate security is a social pre-requisite for the survival of any society. Every society takes appropriate measures to protect the lives and property of people living within its boundaries. Business and social activities may not go on freely without adequate security. This fundamental essence of security may the reason why societies from time immemorial made efforts to police their neighbourhoods in order to secure them from criminal victimization. Security has to do with the act of preventing and protecting in order to ensure that certain facilities, equipment, persons or activities are safe from damage, pilferage, destruction, murder or disruption. The history of crime control dates back to the period when public order was the responsibility of appointed magistrates, who were unpaid private individuals. The first paid public police officer was the praeffectus urbi, a position created in Rome in approximately B.C (Roberg and Kuykendall, 1993). After the fall of the Roman Empire and the subsequent anarchy that followed, kings began to assume the responsibility for legal administration by strengthening the night watch.

Roberg and Kuykendall, (1993) also pointed out that in the twelfth century in England, through ‘Frankpledged’ system which was based on an organization of tithings (ten families) and hundreds (ten tithings), men over the age of fifteen formed a posse comitatus, a group called out to pursue fleeing felons. Thus, the sheriffs who ensured that this Frankpledge system worked were responsible for policing the country.

However, as societies became increasingly complex, social life was disrupted. Existing systems of law enforcement were inadequate to respond to the problems associated with these changes. As a result, night watch system was introduced. This system involved bellmen who walked round the city, ringing bells and providing policing services. The bellmen were later replaced by untrained citizens and much later by paid constables. However, in 1829, Sir Robert Peel established the first modern uniformed police force, the metropolitan police of London, whose primary responsibility was the prevention of crime. (Roberg and Kuykendall,1993)

Vigilantism is not a recent development. Before 1900, many vigilant groups were formed in frontier areas of the United States. In 1851 and 1856, concerned citizens in San Francisco organized vigilante committees that forcibly restored peace and order. (world book encyclopedia, Encyclopedia Americana). In South Africa, vigilante activity is frequently justified as ‘filling a policing gap’ due to police inefficiency, corruption and conspiracy with criminals, practical failing in the criminal justice system. In Sierra-Leone, vigilante activities have been explained in terms of police ineffectiveness in combating crimes (Brownyn, 2001).

In Nigeria, vigilantism existed in the pre-colonial era. Human Right Watch and Center for law enforcement and education report, (2002) noted that “vigilante and other self –defense groups currently operating in Nigeria have roots that reach deep into the country’s history. In the colonial era, some though not all independent local communities, especially in the South east maintained their own standing Army to defend their territory against the threat of invasion from neighbouring communities. Although there was no equivalent modern day structure at that time, some parallels can be drawn between these groups which were created by local communities for their own protection, and the more recently formed self –defense groups”.

The proliferation of vigilante groups in contemporary Nigeria particularly in Ethiope East Local Government area of Delta State is a response to crimes and criminality that have not only increased in degree, scope and volume but also have witnessed an unprecedented change in techniques, mode of operation and sophistication between 1998 and 1999 (wake of fourth republic) and the apparent failure of the Nigeria police to rise up to the occasion. Igbo (2001) has stated that “the apparent failure of Nigeria police to control the increasing wave of crime has led to unilateral public action against crime and criminals in some major cities of Nigeria particularly in the South east of the country”. This is true in Ethiope East Local Government Area, where, presently, vigilante groups are used as a means of crime control due to increasing crime wave and the inability of the formal agents of crime control to bring them under control. In view of this, this study examined the contributions of vigilante groups in controlling crime in contemporary Nigeria, particularly in Ethiope East Local Government area of Delta State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In recent years, many communities in Nigeria have witnessed crimes of various descriptions. Ethiope East Local Government area of Delta State is not an exception. Thus, crime is becoming a serious problem in contemporary Nigeria. The police who are the primary agent in the fight against crime are ineffective. Their ineffectiveness may be as a result of the fact that they are under-staffed, under-equipped, corrupt and lack public cooperation. These have created problem of under policing in Nigeria including Ethiope East Local Government area of Delta State. Thus, violent and property crimes are committed on daily basis without detection and prosecution. Many people are being dispossessed of their valuable property and others are killed or maimed for life by armed bandits. Many people hardly sleep in their houses at night for fear of criminal victimization. Those who sleep in their houses at Night do so at their own peril.

The increase in crime wave and the inability of the Nigeria police to deal with the situation effectively have given rise to the emergence of vigilante groups in its current form. These vigilante groups are to ensure the safety of both their lives and property and that of their families. Eke, (2002) noted that “from time immemorial, ordinary men and women have made several sacrifices to ensure the safety of both their lives and that of their families. That human impulse is not only common in Nigeria. Government in Western Europe, in Africa, and elsewhere was originally set up to offer protection to their subjects”.

Thus vigilantism seems to be gaining more prominence as agent of crime control in Ethiope East Local Government Area. Several vigilante groups now operate in both rural and urban areas in Nigeria. Residents see vigilante groups as an outfit they can always rely on in terms of security. Put differently, the public is skeptical about the ability of Nigeria Police to provide adequate security services alone without the involvement of the public.

This study, therefore, aimed at finding out the impact of vigilante groups on crime control in Ethiope East Local Government area of Delta State


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the contributions of vigilante groups in crime control in Ethiope East Local Government area of Delta State.

The specific objectives are to examine:-

  1. The formation of vigilante groups in Ethiope East L.G.A and the inability of police to control crime
  2. The relationship between people’s level of education and their reliance on vigilante services in Ethiope East L.G.A.
  3. The relationship between people’s occupation and their perceived effectiveness of vigilante groups in Ethiope East L.G.A.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the formation of vigilante groups in Ethiope East L.G.A and the inability of the police to control crime in the area

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between people’s level of education and their reliance on vigilante services in Ethiope East L.G.A.

H03: There is no significant relationship between people’s occupation and their perceived effectiveness of vigilante groups in Ethiope East L.G.A.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study has both theoretical and practical significance. From the theoretical point of view, this study will add to the existing literature on vigilantism. It will also build up a data upon which future research can be based or serve as a point of reference for similar studies. From the practical point of view, this study will show the security gap created in both rural and urban communities and how vigilante groups have tended to make up for this vacuum. To this end, this may stimulate the interest of the government in providing adequate police services in both rural and urban communities or modify and assist vigilante groups to complement security efforts of the police.

In another development, this study will be of great benefit to law enforcement agencies and other stake holders in their quest for police reform. In general, it will stimulate further research in vigilantism and policing.


1.7. Scope of the study

This study covered Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. It covered the activities of vigilante groups in Ethiope East LGA with regard to crime control. This constituted the geographic scope of the study.


1.8 Definition of Concepts

In the context of this study, the following concepts have been defined as follows:

Colonialism:

This refers to the period of British rule in Nigeria.

Contemporary Nigeria:

This refers to present day Nigeria.

Crime:

This means any act or omission that violates the criminal law of the state which is punishable by the state after prosecution and conviction.

Crime control:

This means all the steps and activities taken to prevent the spread and commission of crime.

Crime prevention:

Often used interchangeably with crime control refers to all efforts made to ensure that crime does not occur or is reduced to the barest minimum.

Criminal Justice system:

This refers to state agencies that fight against crime. They are the police, court, prison, probation and parole services.

Police:

This refers to the branch of criminal justice system that fights against crime and maintain law and order.

Policing:

Any effort aimed at detecting and preventing crime as well as protection of lives and property. It can be done formally by state agents or informally by private citizens.

Social control:

This Refers to efforts made to ensure that people’s behaviour conforms to established norms and customs of the society.

Vigilante groups:

This refers to groups formed and funded by members of a particular community to fight against crime and protect lives and property of individuals.


The Contributions Of Vigilante Groups In Crime Control In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • The Contributions Of Vigilante Groups In Crime Control In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


The Contributions Of Vigilante Groups In Crime Control In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State


Disclaimer

This research material “The Contributions Of Vigilante Groups In Crime Control In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “The Contributions Of Vigilante Groups In Crime Control In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.


How to defend your research work


This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “The Contributions Of Vigilante Groups In Crime Control In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “The Contributions Of Vigilante Groups In Crime Control In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.