Contribution Of ICT On Modern Day Broadcast Media In Nigeria
This study was carried out on the contribution of ICT on modern day broadcast media in Nigeria. In order to generate data for the study, the survey research method was used to collate relevant data for the study. The population of this research work comprised the entire staff of NTA Port – Harcourt, RSTV Port-Harcourt and AIT Port – Harcourt. For the purpose of this study, purposive sampling was used. Due to the large nature of the population, limited time and resources available to the researcher, a sample size of three hundred (300) respondents was used for this research. This survey was conducted using the questionnaire as the main instrument for data collection. To analyze the raw data, simple frequencies, numbers and percentages and tables was used where necessary. Findings from the analyzed data show that ICT have had a significant influence in output of the stations under study. The problems of lack of technical know-how cost of acquiring these equipment remains the barriers to their effectiveness. Base on the findings, the study recommends, that the government should reduce value added tax on new media equipment, as this will help reduce the overall cost of the equipment in order to lessen the stations financial burdens. ICT have the capability to further the scope of broadcasting by broadening their horizon and making Nigeria broadcasting a world contender. This can only be achieved if the broadcast media go out of their way to procure new and better facilities. Attempts should be made to educate old and prospective broadcasters through the use of workshops, symposia, seminars and training courses.
Table of Contents
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Definitions of Terms
Review of Related Literature
- 2.1 The Evolution of Broadcasting in Nigeria
- 2.2 Concepts of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
- 2.2.1 The Internet
- 2.2.2 Satellite Technology
- 2.2.3 Cable Technology
- 2.2.4 Computer Technology
- 2.2.5 Digital Cameras
- 2.2.6 Digital Television
- 2.2.7 Teletext
- 2.2.8 Micro-wave Technology
- 2.2.9 Fibre Optic
- 2.3 Development of Information and Communication Technology (ICTs)
- 2.4 Challenges of ICT in the Nigerian Broadcast Industry
- 2.5 Theoretical framework
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sampling Technique
- 3.4 Sample Size
- 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.6 Validation of Research Instrument
- 3.7 Reliability of Research Instrument
- 3.8 Procedure for Data Collection
- 3.9 Method of Analysis and Presentation of Data
Data Presentation and Interpretation
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Research Questions
- 4.3 Discussion and Interpretation of Result
- 4.4 Implications of Findings
- 4.5 Answer to Research Questions
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background of the Study
Media need to be recognized as an important vehicle responsible of acquainting the citizens with well-defined national goals by informing them of their role, expectation and obligation. Media practice is public interest oriented. It is the means through which government, institutions, organization and all others in authority are held accountable to and by the public. It means that the content of the media influences people’s thought and feelings and the world at
However, the alteration of the nature of communication experience in the society by the media, with the new technologies has become conspicuous. People attitude to the traditional media of televisions, music, radio, film and print has also changed due to the dynamic nature of the applied technology in their preference and delivery. Relative in the diaspora can interact with each other in cyber space (the digital world of communication).
As the world grows complex and sophisticated, ICT are invented. The invention of ICT has always been a catalyst for change in the broadcast industry. This change can be attributed to the introduction of ICT on modern day broadcast media occasioned by giant technological advancement.
The advancement in media technologies has cut the barrier of time and space in our broadcast industry; it has also made communication easier and more democratic and the creation and distribution of media content easier. No wonder Defleur and Dennis (1991: 229) observed that:
Technology has always been a metaphor for change in media industry. As far back as Gutenberg, it was technology: the movable type that spurred change. Later, fast printing presses, the telegraph, zinc engraving, modern photography, radio, television, fibre optics, and other technologies heralded new developments for media and their audience.
The emergence of ICT and the imaginative applications of these new technologies and older technologies make it possible for the society to be more informed. It also makes information processing, delivery, storage and retrieval easier. As the world strives towards globalization, the ICT are believed to be a great facilitator of this move.
Nsude (2004:102) believes that the human family is disunited and fragmented into nations and cultures with conflicting interest and perceptions and there is need therefore for a more united world. Throughout history, new media and new forms of media delivery have continually appeared. Today we have witnessed the arrival of a global community brought about by advances in communication technologies. This has invariably brought to fore the concept of globalization. Marshal McLuhan, a Canadian Scholar, who foresaw the effect of technological change in communication, said that the human society has been restored to a „global village‟. The concept of global village assumes that “communication technology” now work like the nervous system in the human family. Messages could be sent and received with surprising speed. This therefore has shrunk the world into a smaller place not because of a contraction in landmass, but due to the marvels in communication technologies.
Baran (2009:314) citing McLuhan states:
The media permit us to experience the world with a scope and depth otherwise impossible. Media, then, are extension of our bodies. Just as clothes are an extension of our skin, permitting us to wander farther from our warm caves into the cold world; just as the automobile is an extension of our feet, enabling us to travel farther we could ever walk; television extends our vision and hearing, and computers extend our central nervous system. With television we can see and hear around the world, beyond the galaxy, into the future, and into the past.
Computers process, sort, categorize, reconfigure, and clarify.
The ICT play functional roles and make tremendous contributions to the day to day running of the broadcast industry and society. Each advance in communication increases our power to convey and record information, and each has played a role in prompting significant changes in our culture and society. It is difficult to digest fully the influence of one medium before another comes on the scene. Prior to the arrival of ICT, broadcasting equipment has been mechanical or analogue in nature. These mechanical states of the equipment hinder effective production and dissemination of news and information. Even the transmission of broadcast signals was often affected by wave interference, hedges and unclear signals. The reception of signals was largely limited to the carrying capacity of the transmitter. The arrival of the computer has had enormous influence in the production process in the broadcast industry. The computer has put tremendous speed on news reporting and editing making the process almost instantaneous. This process lays a strong emphasis on accuracy as Agba (2001:3) citing Swinton (1974) observes, “You cannot catch up with an error in an era of satellite circuits and high-speed wires” in today’s cyberspace, high-tech age, the computer has reduced, if not completely removed, the difficulties in the production of media products through the electronic system. For instance, in the past, the production and distribution process in a broadcast industry involved clear definitive steps and employed manual labour. Today, studies have revealed that broadcast industry especially in Europe and North America not only gather information but also have their stories written using computers. This modern technology eliminates the need for compositors to type because reporters have done the key stroking and the story already exists in an electronic form. In addition, many reporters run their stories through computers that correct spelling and grammar. Also editors plan the pages of stories on computers, further reducing the need for compositors. For instance with the ICT AIT news can be accessed from any part of the world. The station’s transmission on satellite has broken the barriers inherent in analogue system and non-satellite system.
However, the introduction and acquisition of ICT have strongly influenced broadcast transmission and reception particularly in Nigerian Television Authority
(NTA) Port – Harcourt, Rivers State Television (RSTV) Port – Harcourt and Daar Communications Ltd (AIT) Port – Harcourt.
According to Agba (2001:47) technology is integral to a global marketplace wherein media companies and individual media come together and compete across national boundaries in a fashion unheard of only some years back. Broadcasting as a branch of mass communication has witnessed a landmark transformation into a field of vigorous competition with vast liberalization of infrastructure, information can now be digitalized, transported, stored, retrieved, modified and distributed. High speed digital electronic highways serve as the common technology through which these pieces of information are transported.
With the introduction of ICT, the broadcast media have penetrated deeply into the basic fabrics of our social institutions in the society by beaming out information and programmes that meet and satisfy the needs and aspirations of their listener and viewer. In the words of Bittner (1989:37) Technology has aided the media to move from the experimental stage, to the present stage where they now exert great influence on world events.
With the introduction of new technologies on modern day broadcast media, such as the Internet, satellite cable system, fibre optics to mention but a few, journalism practice across national boundaries has taken a drastic turn for the better. Technology has aided both the print and broadcast media to establish a strong presence in the Cyberspace. This brings us to the concept of technological convergence.
By technological convergence we mean the continuous development in media technology aimed at bringing about a blend in technologies in the process of message delivery. Okoro (2006:37) citing Folkerts et al states that in this process, technological changes not only create new forms of media but also cause formally distinct media forms such as newspapers to blend or overlap functions with the new media, as is now the case with news on television and the internet.
Ilo (2000) in Okoro (2006:37) agrees that this convergence is rooted in technological innovations in microelectronics, telecommunications and the computer. In this mode, all kinds of data, irrespective of their origin can be manipulated and integrated through digitalization on the basis of their common informational structure. With this development they will become instrument for the dissemination and propagation of local Nigerian news and culture across Nigeria borders and thus, maintaining a strategic presence on the information superhighway.
In view of the above submission, it is pertinent for the broadcast media professionals to be acquainted and able to manipulate these technologies and also have good knowledge of the workings of these new technologies employed on modern day broadcast media. This implies that, the media professionals should know the means of acquiring them, installing and maintaining these equipment and the ability to overcome the challenges posed by these innovations as a catalyst for change and as the pivot around which great competition revolve in the broadcast industry.
To authenticate the above assertion Mbam (2007:64) affirms that information and communication technology (ICT) is applied in communication profession because media practitioners need organized (systematic or formalized) way of handling information for proper planning, proper decision making, and proper management in organization and individual activities which information are meant for.
It is unarguably becoming a statement of fact that the success of any organization; institution, business, or individual venture depends largely on the level of communication effectiveness and efficiency at its disposal. Every business or organization, regardless of its size or purpose, is concerned with processing of facts (or data) about its operations in order to provide accurate information to its management. This function could be carried out faster through the use of modern communication channels like internet, television, motion picture etc, which disseminate information to all nooks and crannies of the populace. These modern communication devices go a long way to alleviate the numerous human efforts being wasted in our previous (un–organized or non–systematic) manner of running our organizations or collecting our information (Mbam: 2002). The needs in today’s organizational and institutional pattern to save time, cost and minimize the process of organizing and coordinating our big activities is the core function of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs).
However, the story is different in the Nigerian broadcast industry. Even in the face of technological advancement in other countries and the applications of these new technologies in the broadcast media, the acquisition and use in Nigeria is rather slow. Nigerian broadcasters are yet to catch up with the trend in modern technologies, although communication experts foresaw long ago that more private broadcast media will spring up in Nigeria by 21st century, giving communication its place and priority in the country. The use of new information technologies in Nigeria is a recent phenomenon, as the media are doing their best to catch up with the trend of things in the world in terms of the acquisition and use of these new technologies. These technologies are capable of creating sophistication in the method of broadcasting and also improve the output and quality of programmes.
According to Amuchie (2001:48), in a world that has become a global village where information travels faster than the speed of light, any country that stand aloof, whether out of ignorance or lack of appreciation of this necessity will certainly contend with backwardness.
The Nigerian broadcast media cannot afford to stand aloof where others are making progress, thus, to fight the shackles of backwardness successfully, there is need to embrace the use of these technologies in order to improve the quality of the programmes and broadcast. The improvement of the broadcast media all over the world is greatly due to the application of the right technologies and communication system within their broadcast network Malcom (2001: 217).
In view of the foregoing, a problem arises as to how to gauge the influence of these new technologies on broadcast content, message delivery, information reach and quality. Given the startling development of ICT and the expectation that proper application of these technologies would improve broadcasting in Nigeria this study will therefore, examine the Influence of ICT on broadcasting. A study of television stations in Port-Harcourt metropolis.
These television stations in focus include
Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Port- Harcourt, Rivers State Television (RSTV) Port – Harcourt and African Independent Television (AIT) Port – Harcourt.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is saddening that despite the startling developments in media technology, TV broadcasting in Nigeria especially in Rivers state is yet to assimilate the new innovation or imbibe the realities of modern broadcasting. The advancement in media technology can only be said to be achieving the desired ends when they readily and continuously influence positively the operations of the Nigerian broadcast media. What this translates to, is that the success or otherwise of all these technologies can only be measured in terms of the extent to which they bring improvement on the accuracy, speed and transfer of message and redefine the concept of broadcasting to an enviable height. The use of ICT can only be said to be effective when the media professionals and audience benefit from the technologies through improved quality of programmes. The problem still remains as to how to assess the extent to which the ICT have influenced the television stations in Port – Harcourt metropolis. ( NTA Port-Harcourt, RSTV Port-Harcourt and AIT Port-Harcourt).
How have the ICT enhanced productivity in terms of accuracy and news production in these stations? Are the public broadcast stations more abreast of the influence of the new media or the private broadcast station more aware of this influence? How have the ICT influenced the members of staff? How proficient are the members of staff in the use of these ICT? What are the challenges posed by these technologies to the members of staff? How do the stations acquaint their staff with the operations of ICT? Are these influences positive or negative?
How have these technologies helped to overcome the barriers of time space and distance? What are the resultant effects of the total qualities of programmes as a result of the use of ICT? This research is therefore set basically to answer this question; what influences have ICT played on modern day broadcast media, with regard to NTA Port-
Harcourt, RSTV Port-Harcourt and AIT Port- Harcourt.
1.3 Objectives of Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the Contribution of ICT on modern day broadcast media in Nigeria.
Specifically, the objectives of the study include the following;
- To determine the extent to which the ICT have influenced the operations of the broadcast media.
- To examine the level of proficiency of the members of staff in the use of ICT.
- To determine the extent to which ICT have been incorporated into the stations operations.
- To determine the challenges posed by ICT to broadcast operations.
1.4 Research Questions
To realize the objectives of this study, the following research questions were asked;
- To what extent have the ICT influenced the operations of the broadcast media in terms of reach, programmes, economy etc?
- How proficient are the members of staff in the use of the ICT?
- To what extent have the stations incorporated ICT in their operations?
- What are the challenges posed by these new technologies to the broadcast industry?
1.5 Significance of Study
This study will be beneficial in the following ways:
The findings will help to reposition the thought pattern and help media professionals to get acquainted with the new technologies to help produce quality programmes.
The findings of this research will add to the existing literatures and act as a handy material for students who might have interest in researching further on the topic.
The study shows the extent to which broadcast media have incorporated the use of modern technologies in their operations.
The findings from this research ascertained how favourable or unfavourable these new technologies are to the broadcast media.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The interest of this study lied in the contribution of ICT on modern day broadcast media in Nigeria with regard to television stations in Port – Harcourt metropolis.
The work does not study the generality of influence on all the equipment used on modern day broadcast media; rather it restricts itself to only new media (Internet), satellite technology, cable system, computer, digital cameras, fibre optic, teletext and digital television employed on modern day broadcast media. Analogue equipment and other equipment not mentioned above are not within the scope of this study.
1.7 Definitions of Terms
For a proper understanding of this work, key terms used are defined based on their conceptual relevance to this study.
According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary(7th ed.). Influence is the effect that somebody or something has on the way a person thinks or behaves or on the way that something works or develops. It could be further said as the power that somebody or something has to make somebody or something behave in a
According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary(7th ed.).New Media means new information and entertainment technologies, such as the Internet, CD-ROMs and Digital Television. On the other hand McQuail (2005:136) simply defines the “new media as a disparate set of communication technologies that shares certain features apart from being new made possible by digitalization and being widely available for personal use as communication devices.
This refers to any special device or medium that helps in the procession, distribution, storage, display and reception of information.
This is the business of sending out radio and television signals over a distance, to a large heterogeneous audience by means of airwaves.
This is that electronic media or channel that uses the airwaves which enables signals and information to be transmitted to a large and diverse audience.
According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th
ed.).Convergence means to move towards a place from different direction and meet.
According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th ed.). Digital means using a system of receiving and sending information as a series of the numbers, numbers one to zero, showing that an electronic signal is there or is not there.
This means international integration. It can be describe as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society. This process is a combination of economic, technology, socio – cultural and political forces. www.wikipedia.org.
According to the wikipedia. org the internet also known as the “Net” or the “Web” can be easily understood as a “network of networks”. Specifically, it is the worldwide publicly accessible network of international computer networks that transmits data by packet switching using the standard internet protocol (IP). Oxford
Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th ed.). “Internet” is an international computer network connecting other networks and computers from companies, universities, etc.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
The essence of this study is to ascertain the influence which ICT have had on the Nigerian broadcast media. To achieve this, a statement of problem was formulated with four research questions drawn to guide the research. However for clarity of purpose, television stations in Port-Harcourt Metropolis (NTA Port-Harcourt, RSTV PortHarcourt and AIT Port-Harcourt), were used as the study units for the research and relevant literatures on ICT and broadcasting were reviewed.
In order to elicit the relevant data, the survey method of research was deployed using the instrument of the questionnaire to formulate questions in line with the research objectives. The results showed, among other things, that the Nigerian broadcast media have accepted and adopted the use of some relevant ICT, particularly the extensive application of the computer and flash drive in various areas of broadcasting.
The study also found out that this application has been very gradual, though moderate in Nigeria. It was also revealed that most of the broadcast personnel are not proficient in the use of the ICT. High cost of the equipment and lack of access are the possible challenges encountered by the broadcast media in the application of the ICT as was further revealed by the study.
It is clear that ICT have great influence on the operations of the broadcast media. This of course, is the monumental capabilities of the ICT in the Nigerian broadcast media. This realization has led to the acceptance and use of some of the relevant technologies, such as computer, the internet, digital studio and recorders. This infers that the media have fought the shackles of backwardness as implied by Amuchie (2001: 48) when he said, “in a world that has become a global village any country that stands aloof, whether out of ignorance or lack of appreciation of this basic necessity will certainly contend with backwardness”.
The rate of adoption and usage of these technologies in Nigerian broadcast industry has been very gradual as broadcasters are yet to be fully acquainted with the technologies, thus, they apply them as moderately as their limited knowledge will allow.
Despite, the reluctance in the adoption of these media technologies there has been a significant improvement in the work performance of broadcasters. ICT have gone a long way to improve content, delivery and quality of broadcast programmes.
This affirms the opinion of Malcom (2001: 217) that “the position of broadcast media all over the world would improve once they apply the correct technology and communication system within their network”.
Being a developing phenomenon, the use of ICT in Nigeria is plagued with some problems, which are not really insurmountable, but requires some level of hard work and commitment to overcome.
From the facts emanating from this study, it is clear that broadcasting in itself is technology-driven. It is thus inevitable that the future of broadcasting in Nigeria will be
In the light of this, the researcher recommends the following.
- The government should reduce value added tax on new media equipment, as this will help reduce the overall cost of the equipment in order to lessen the stations financial burdens.
- ICT have the capability to further the scope of broadcasting by broadening their horizon and making Nigerian broadcasting a world contender. This can only be achieved if the broadcast media go out of their way to procure new and better facilities.
- Lack of technical know-how is also a great impediment to the use of ICT in the broadcast media. Attempts should be made to educate broadcasters and other media personnel’s through the use of workshops, symposia, seminars and training courses.
- The Nigerian government should try to formulate policies that will give prominence to the promotion of research in science and technology. This will improve the outlook of Nigerians on technological innovations, and help to improve their general awareness and acceptance.
- Broadcast media should provide their staff with training and refresher IT centres in their organization. This would help to refresh and update their knowledge of ICT as new innovations emerge.
- Private, state and federal media stations should invest in the procurement of ICT that are in tune with modern technological advances.
- In order to completely eliminate ICT illiteracy among broadcasters, the government through the federal ministry of education should make IT literacy training a mandatory course in every tertiary institution, and even incorporated into the introductory technology subject of the secondary and primary schools.
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