The Contribution Of Marble Mining Company To The Economic Development Of Igbeti Community From 1969 To Resent

Project and Seminar Material for Economics

The Contribution Of Marble Mining Company To The Economic Development Of Igbeti Community From 1969 To Resent

Chapter One

1.1 Background to the Study

Definition of marble mining:

What is marble? Marble can be defined as a type of had store that is usually white and often has coloured lines in it. It can be polished and is used in building and for making status etc. a slab / block of marble, a marble floor/ sculpture.


The purpose of the ground the industry involved in this coal diamond goal tin mining. The role of marble mining in economic development: The Marble Mining company have played prominent roles in Igbeti’s economy in terms of employment, provision of a wide range of goods and service it has helped to facilitate international transactions, it has also contributed to the gross National Product Payment of Taxes, import and export duties also make transfer of technology possible, this they do by training their workers.

However, if the technology transfer is properly looked at in terms of scientific knowledge that constitutes the engine of modern industrialism, then it is argued that Marble Mining have not done enough to the hosts economic. In spite of this view, it would not be correct to say that Marble mining company had not made impact to the host’s economy. Therefore, we shall examine the contribution of Marble Mining Company. The study shall focus on the impact the company. This is to enable us access its performance and impact to the Igbeti economic development.

1.2 Aims and Objectives

The aim of this work is to examine the role of Marble Mining Company to the economic development of Igbeti as well as the rate at which these developments is taking place. In doing this, we shall examine the origin of Marble mining company, its operation. We shall also attempt to explore the attention paid to the aspect of internal environment at the organization such as the quality of the products, the distribution of products, resources mobilization and utilization, organization structure general administration and management.

1.3 Scope of the Work

The study is based on the role of marble mining company in the economic development of Igbeti. Thus, it shall examine the general overview of Igbeti, how historical background the emergence of indigenous economic activities industrial development in Igbeti from 1960 till date as well as the modern industrial development in Igbeti. Moreover, the study discuses the efforts of Marble Mining at making the town a better place industrially. The contribution of Marble Mining as well as prospects shall be examine, it will also serve as an insight for researchers wishing to carry out a further research or study of the economic history of Igbeti.

1.4 Research Methodology and Limitation

The method adopted for this research include both primary and secondary sources primary sources include interview with some staff of marble Mining company which enabled the researcher to have face to face discussion with people and to clarify issues. The secondary sources include text books, the company’s annual reports and accounts and some documents that are valuable information on the company, research into activities of marble mining company, is not without its problems.

This is because not all workers were allowed to go round the factory as much as I needed in order to get materials and all the materials that I needed was given to me, but the manager also told me that I may still get some material in the activities. However, in spite of the materials constraint, the researcher was able to get information needed from officers, available book and the company. Despite all constraints was able to get some important things that aided the successful completion of this project.

1.5 Literature Reviews

A few long essay, book and articles have been written on Igbeti, but very few of them focus on the economic development of the town. Chief /Dr. D.O ogunbiyi: Igbeti Town A Tourism Attraction Since (2000) discuss the early history of Igbeti. The history of igbeti was an interesting one according to the author ‘Igbeti’ the head quarter of Olorunsogo local government area of Oyo State is an ancient settlement located in the hill valley in the wood land of the savannah forest. It is about 84 kilometers North West of Ogbomoso. It is about 24 kilometers by the south of the old oyo which was the capital of that popular ancient Yoruba kingdom.

It state orire local government councils. The town is surrounded with beautiful attractive hill the highest of them being iyamopo hill. Historically, Sango Olufihan Ajala iji was the first settler on Iyamopo hill before he became Alafin of old Oyo around 12th – 13th century, some year after his death, Sango was accepted as semi – god his priest came back to worship the hill that assisted Sango to become Alafin of Oyo around 16th century. By the end and middle of 17th century other settle who were mainly hunters and priest joined the settle. Many settlement soon developed with heads and Baales ruling them. When the Jihadist war of 18th century was approaching these settlements Amalgamated at the foot of Iyamopo hill so as to join forces.

They then settled on Iyamopo hill when Jihadist came. They fought them and won. Yoruba war again started and escalated because the slave trade raiders called AGAN-NIGAN. After the abolition of slave trade, the people came to settle in this rich valley around 1900. Soon after wards, Igbeti grew tremendously in land mass population, it has many large number of villages under it. The town attained its local government status on December 4, 1996. The name Igbeti, emanated long ago through one of Iji family who was no male issue to inherit his priest –hood status after his death. Ifa oracle advised killed many lovers of iyamopo who assisted them to settle in a rich attractive area; the priest yielded and left hunting. If they asked him why he had no more dried meat, he would tell them I had left hunting (moti pagbeti).

People then started to call him and his village as pagbeti or Baba Pagbeti. From this, the name of the settlement metamorphosed to Igbeti. The name continued during Amalgamation and till date. The occupation of the people are farming and trading. The religious of the people are Traditional religion, Islam and Christianity. The head of Igbeti is called ONIGBETI. Town has a big market, plenty Marble stones and many Tourist attractions. Another published work consulted by the researcher is Adeniyi E. Adeyeye COMPENDIUM OF ECONOMIC, TOURISM AND NATIONAL RESOURCES POTENTIAL OF OYO STATE AND ITS 33 LOCAL GOVERNMENT (2002) This book has helped the researcher in identifying the various indigenous economic activities which existed in Igbeti in the earliest times, ranging from farming, trading mining and transportation and so on.

The book shed more light on the various methods and techniques used in farming while emphasis was laid on the use of “hoe and cutlass” by the indigenes. It also emphasized on the Marble Mining of the Igbeti people of Oyo State. In spite of the credit given to this book by the researcher, the book has failed to mention or discussed some fact about economic activities which existed in Igbeti. It should be noted that the organic soil in Igbeti are good. The climate in the area favours the growth of crop like yam, Maize, Guineacorn, cassava, cashew etc. Agriculture is the major sources of income for the greatest number of the people of Igbeti increase farmer productivity enhance income and standard of living.

In “information Hand Book titled” OLORUNSOGO LOCAL GOVERNMENT IGBETI INFORMATION HAND BOOK by Hon. Azeez Bello Akanji, 1st Chairman olorunsogo local government. Internecine wars during the 17th and 18th century in Yoruba land were responsible for the strategic location of Igbeti in a national fortress “protected by the hill”. It was not until around 1886 when the settlements in the area fused to form a united front,the people moved down the hills to Igbeti’s present location. The town has since retained its original form despite the chaotic situation in the war torn Yoruba land. Igbeti initially gained importance as a resting camp for hunters and rendezvous for traders at the time. Another impetus was the official royal recognition by the Alaafin via the expedition of the royal blood, Okose and Olahanmi who reported their contact with Iyamopo “the owner of the biggest hill and goodness of the town”.

Historical record on the leadership of the first settlement in Igbeti has been inconclusive while one narration named Akinyele as the premium interprets, another record said Atiba was the founder while Lahanmi became the first traditional ruler hence the saying (Atiba lo te Igbeti but Lahanmi usurped the throne as the Oba) Also, the book title: The Beauty of Grassroot Governance – A case study of Olorunsogo local Government Area, Ogbeti Oyo State by Hen. W. O. Adeoye and his administration in (1999) who was the 2nd chairman of Olorunsogo local government Igbeti Oyo state. Igbeti the headquarter of Olorunsogo local government is blessed with abundant Marble deposit, which experts claimed to be of the highest quality. The mining site is located in the Northwest of the local government up to Yegun River in the South West Area of the local Government.

The Marble deposit is speculated to have extended up to 25km 59. Igbeti Marble which commenced operation around 1969 save for some occasional breaks in production has affected the social economic life of the people. It is hopped that if mining activities resume fully and the mineral resources is tapped to its fullest it will go long way in generating both employment and income for the unemployed youth and the government respectively. The mining site, which extend from Ookun up to Yegun, is good to behold other mineral resources are granite for road tarring and limestone, which is being speculated but yet to be confirmed by geological experts. Finally, it should be noted that all the literature above have contributed in one way or the other towards the writing of this project, but one could be rest assured that this is completely different from them all.

Chapter Five

5.1 Problems Confronting Marble Mining Compang

In spite of Marble Mining long existence, experience and its impact on the social- economic development lgbeti, the company still faces a number of problems which shall be discussed below.

One of the major problems faced Marble Mining that is confronting the company is the gross shortage of required earth-moving and Mining equipment like bulldozer, pay loader, Drilling compressors, Dump trucks e.t.c to effectively undertake its mining vocation.

Another major problem confronted by the company is that, for a company that has a deposit asset of about 20 square miles it is disheartening that the company is poorly equipped to contemplates optimally exploitation of the vast deposits.

Marble mining process involves the exposure of the top soil by such a earth moving equipment as bulldozer or scrapers which is supposed to expose the rock deposit after which holes are drilled with the aid of Drilling compressor after which explosives are administered for blasting the exposed rocks. The blasted rocks are subsequently broken into smaller and sizeable aggregates which are supposed to be conveyed out of the quarry by the play loader and tipped into the Dump truck which conveys the consignments to the loading bay or into the crusher as the case may be.

Moreover, in the particular ease of the company, the only buldozers available is out of order since December on account of bad aid broken under carriage i.e. sprockers is Rollers etc. The company has not been able to put it into use this year.

The same goes for the Drilling machine. It was completely out of order between February and April.

Furthermore, in essence, virtually all the company’s major items of equipment (most of which were inherited from IMI) are either old or definitional or both. The principal ones which constitute a wastepipe for the company’s resources are the bulldozer aid Volvo pay loader. The plant, which is unassembled till date.One other problem facing the company is that the poor condition of the 3voksva Herschel generator at Igbeti end. The unavoidable reliance on NEPA supplies is a serious bane given the irregularity of electric supply. The advise effect of this is the inability to undertake crushing operations and, of course, flooding of the quarry because of inability to dewater through the electric water pump and the resultant inaccessibility of the Igbeti quarry on this account.4

Another fundamental problem facing the company presently is the infiltration of various mining companies into Alaquitan village at the instance of the original land words (Onigbori of Igbori and his people).

The land area containing marble deposits in Alaquitan incidentally falls within the land area over which the Ikoyi community had granted the late chief E.O. Ashamu a 50 year leasehold with effect from Dec.1971. Chief Ashamu3 title on the land formed part of the assets he begreathed, on NMMC and upon which compositions were computed in this favour.5

The support or the Area Mines officer Engr. Lawal for this activities of the “encroachers” and the customary court judgment surreptitiously obtained in their favour by the Origbori and his cohorts declaring them as the title holders on the land has compounded issues. Over the one year the company has spent a fortune on this issue by resorting to litigation sensitizing the state Government to perfect the acquisition of the land area in the company favour, securing the services of the state security agencies for surveillance of the area and eventual movement of the company’s mining equipment and operations to Alaguntan is August 1997. All these have had their financial toll(s) on the company.6

The company’s solicitor is currently working at getting the customary court judgement quashed at the Ogbomosho high court. The matter comes up for hearing on Thursday 28th may 1998. Another related matter filled on the company’s behalf at the federal high court, Ibadan has been withdrawn.

In the meantime, a legion of private Mining companies have resumed operations at Alaguntan with an attendant adverse effect on the company’s fortunes.

There is also the problem at worker’s low productivity:- The apathetic disposition of the company’s quarry worker’s who staffed salary earners and who deem the company’s work as a civil service venture, is another serious drawback for the company’s operation.9

The company had over the year been paying unproductive salaries since the quarry output has always been less then commensurate with the investments on production. The corollary of this is the resultant cash flow problem with has made it virtually impossible to support the previous work force. Some of the workers have opted out because of non-payment of salaries since February 1998.the management is however presently working in an experiment with some contrite-producers in Alaguntan which, started around mid-may. The success or otherwise at this experiment will determine the fata at the existing quarry workers.10

5.2 Prospect of Marble Mining Company

Since its inception and considering the problem faced by Marble Mining, the company has been surviving; the secret of the company’s continued survival and growth in the face of the harsh political upheavals and the accompanying, economic down-turn in the country since the eighties has been the foreight and good strategic plans of the management.

The company’s product profile include high quality which it produces from the company Igbeti as well as some imported goods. The products enjoy good patronage of the consumer because of the outstand comparative high quality and this helped the company a great deal in its survival and growth strategies in the past.11

The company also markets and sell its products in Nigeria through distributors and wholesalers nationwide. The emerging markets and consumer tastes both within and outside the country are coming sophisticated and demanding, the company is aware of this challenge.

The company therefore maintains a good policy of continuous research and development to ensure that it keeps up and meet the challenge of modern times through the maintenance and sustenance of high quality products in order to continue to retain the patronage of its teeming consumers nationwide.

The management’s desires to succeed in spite at the unencouraging business climate remain storing.

It should be noted that the operating environment if anything is expected to be more challenging in the future. To this end, the Board has put in place a number of measures that will effective re- position the company in orders to surmount these challenges and uncertainties. This will enable the company to continue rendering satisfactory returns on investments.

Finally, the company will continue to whether the storm created by unfavorable operating environment and adapt as much as possible awards improving its earning in the coming years.

5.2 Summary and Conclusion

This essay has attempted to examine the role of Marble Mining industries on the economic development of Igbeti. Thus, it has examined the general overview of in Igbeti, her background, the industrial development in Igbeti up to 1969 and the emergence of indigenous economic activities and multinational corporations.

Moreover, the growth and development at Marble Mining Company was also analyzed; that show how the company was nationalized. The line of products of the company was thoroughly dealt with as well as the organizational structure and the function at the various officers of the company including the purpose and objectives at the company as well as the marketing system of the company.

This work has endeavored to look at the impact at the company’s operation on the socio-economic development at Igbeti and Nigeria as a whole.

Moreover, the company has contributed economically by providing employment opportunities to Igbetian, taxpaying, transfer at technology and encouragement of made in Nigeria goods. The company has also contributed to the socio development of Igbeti and Oyo state as a whole by reducing the mortality rate, health services, provision social amenities, catering for the Orphans and so on; as well training Igbeti’s in managerial and technical skills. This in its own little way has led to the industrial development of the country as well as the introduction of various products of the company into the Nigerian market.

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