Continuous Assessment As A Correlate Of Student Academic Performance In School

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Continuous Assessment As A Correlate Of Student Academic Performance In School


Abstract


The study sought to determine the role of continuous assessment in promoting student academic performance in selected secondary schools. The research will work towards introducing the topic and the case study, i.e. as the study advance aims, objective significance of the study will follow. Added to this literature review, will be extensively examine by measuring the degree of performance of students using CA through the work of previous authors. In chapter three, the research team will describe the research methods to be use, the population, the sampling procedure instrument use, the data gathering and data analytical procedure in order to collect information relevant to the topic. Data will be presented and analyzed the information gathered i.e. the findings that could be obtained. The project will be finally closed by summarizing the text, making possible conclusions, provide suggestions and recommendations base on the findings.

 


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.7 Scope Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Background Of Continuous Assessment
  • 2.3 Meaning Of Continuous Assessment
  • 2.4 Characteristics Of Continuous Assessment
  • 2.5 Reasons For Continuous Assessment
  • 2.6 Techniques Of Continuous Assessment
  • 2.7 Problems And Solutions Of Implementing Continuous Assessment In Schools
  • 2.8 Motivation And Stimulation Of Students Interest
  • 2.9 How To Motivate Students’ Interest
  • 2.10 Importance Of Continuous Assessment

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Description Of Sampling Procedure
  • 3.2 Description Of Sample Size
  • 3.3 Description Of Data Analytical Procedure

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1. Results

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Assessment of students’ level of academic performance is vital to teaching and learning process as it provides the necessary feedback about the outcome of educational goals and objectives. The assessment of learning outcomes provides objective evidences necessary in the decision-making process in education. As pointed out by Bassavanthappa (2009), good measurement resulting in accurate data is the foundation of sound decision making about educational endeavor. In education, assessment aims at determining the level of students’ mastery of a body of knowledge and skills in a subject (Airasian, 2006).

Continuous assessment is a classroom strategy implemented by teachers to ascertain the knowledge, skills and understanding attained by students at a particular point in time. Teachers administer assessments in a variety of ways in order to observe multiple tasks and information about what students know, understand and can do. The assessments are curriculum-based tasks previously taught in classroom. Continuous assessment is a method of evaluation carried out periodically or at a predetermined interval of the school year. It is aimed at finding out how much students have acquired in a subject matter. It is a consistence monitoring of students’ progress in school. It involves collecting data with a view to making value judgement about the quality of a person, object, group or event (Ajuonuma, 2007).

The continuous assessment grading system requires the assessment of the change in behaviours, in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. The students are evaluated from one stage to the other through tests, assignments, projects and other school activities. At the end of the term or session, the tests are used for determining the performance of the students in a particular subject. Race (2007) stated that continuous assessment is more useful to the students, as it provides them with on-going feedback on their performance, helps them to become more self-critical, and encourages them to attempt mastering material as they actually work through a course, thus, achieving success in their academic goals. According to Adegbeye (2003), CA is more relevant as it allows students to demonstrate their ability and development on a periodical basis, so that students who have studied hard but is not very good at sitting for examinations is not placed at a disadvantage compared with lazy students who engage in minimum amount of work needed to pass such examinations.

In the past, the educational systems of many African nations were dominated by the one-short summative type of assessment (Alausa, 2005). Students were trained to pass examinations so as to move up the education ladder; in order to stop this, suggestions for a broader approach to assessment, which would be flexible and also provide valid and reliable results were made (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2004). In the light of this, CA was introduced to find ways in which academic evaluation impacts on the way teaching occurred and learners learnt; hence, the significance of teachers’ understanding of relevance of continuous assessment to students’ academic success. It is when people know about innovation they are to adopt that they are motivated to embrace its practices.

Through the National Policy on Education (NPE), the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN, 2004) stated that educational assessment at all levels of education would be liberalized by basing them in whole or part on continuous assessment. This recommendation was based on some deficiencies identified in the nation’s way of assessing students. The traditional system of assessment concentrated only on the cognitive domain, with little or no attempt made to assess the affective and psychomotor domains. This system encourages students to study only during the period of examination. This is done by the memorisation of facts, which are forgotten after the examination (FGN, 2004; Obe, 2005). It was based on these reasons and more that the committee set for National Policy on Education in 1971, recommended the use of continuous assessment in Nigeria Educational System. In pursuance of this policy statement, National University Commission (NUC) allotted 30% and 70% of the total score of the university students to continuous assessment and end of semester examination respectively. Towards this end, this study investigated teachers’ perception of continuous assessment relevance to students’ academic performance in Ilorin metropolis and its implications for counselling in twenty-first century.

Continuous assessment is a relatively new innovation to our education system. It is seen as one of the major outcome of the deliberations of Nigeria National curriculum conference that was held in 1969. It is put in National Policy on Education this “educational assessment and evaluation will be liberalized by using them in whole or part on continuous assessment of the progress of individual” the Nigerian National Policy on Education state clearly in section 3 article 17 (g) that “advancement from one class to another (in secondary school) shall be based on continuous assessment.

According to Yoloye (1985) define continuous assessment as a method of ascertaining what a pupils gains from schooling in terms of knowledge, industry and the development of character, taking into account the pupil performances in tests, assignments, project and other educational activities within a given period of the term, year or during the entire period of an educational level of the pupil. It may be viewed as “a method of finding out what the pupil has gained from learning activities in terms of knowledge, thinking, reasoning, the development of character and industry”.

Anikweze (1987) regards continuous assessment of the learning experiences made as a strategy that offers the teacher an opportunity to ensure that pupils are not merely that pupils are not merely schooled but equally educated. The emphasis here is on the assessment of affective behaviours during the lesson when the pupils is involved in direct participation in the learning process, Anikweze (1995).

According to Falayajo (1979) says continuous assessment is a “system of assessment which is carried out of predetermined intervals (usually coinciding with some identifiable units of instruction or level of educational system) for the purpose of monitoring the progress of otherwise of students and the general performance or educational system” Ezewu and Okoye (1991) define continuous assessment as a systematic and objective process of determining the extent of a student’s learner) performance in all the expected changes in his behaviour from the day he enter upon a course of study in a progressive manner to the end of such course of study, and a judicious accumulation of all pieces of information derived from this purpose with a view to use them to guide and shape the students in his learning from time to time and to serve as basis for important decisions about the child.
Continuous assessment is a mechanism whereby the final “grading of a student in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains or behaviour systematically takes account of all his performances during a give period of schooling” Akinade (1996) from these definitions above, continuous assessment can therefore be described as a systematic use of varied and reliable multiple assessment tools at regular interval to determine the performance and the ability of the learner in the three domains of behaviour that is (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) with the aim of getting the true picture of the learner and helping him develop fully his potentials. Continuous assessment also allows teacher greater input into the overall assessment of his pupils through the help of this, the teacher will be able to plan better the curriculum and teaching in order to meet the needs of the pupils.
All these ideas can be easily grappled, but when the phrase standard of education is mentioned. The concept immediately change and become less clear, there is no universally accepted view as to what excellence, criterion established or basis of measurement for education. The important Knowledge on which the acquisition of many kinds of knowledge and understanding of other subject experience in arts and on enquiring and which may form the basis of educational quality

Moreover, degree of excellence in this entire fields cannot be easily achieved, for example in mathematics neatness, accuracy, methods and layout, in reading, relative valve are given to phrases emphasis, in reading, relative value are given to phrases emphasis, accent and understanding while in writing, neatness, accuracy, method, punctuation, layout, spelling of words, idea and imagination. All these are subjective judgment which varies from one individual to another. There is a greater element of subjectivity that is, use in measuring attitude of mind. However, this does not implies that there can be no degree of excellence in these spheres, measurement depend to a lesser or greater extent on the measures that are used and since their measuring rods differ from one another, measurement must also be different. This educational standard will always be a matter of dispute.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The urgent need to promote learning and improve performance in secondary schools in Nigeria resulted into a range of related but different developments in continuous assessment at classroom levels. The resultant feature has been inconsistent performance of students in external examinations national wide and performance still varies from school to school. This undermines the future of many students that are in schools that persistently perform poorly. What therefore remains disturbing is whether a relationship between continuous assessment strategies adopted by teachers in secondary schools and students’ academic performance in secondary school. Kanno (2006) carried out a research work on the relevance of continuous assessment test to students’ cognitive development in elementary schools in Ilorin metropolis, Dekaiye (2011) conduct a research on the influence of school population on the implement of continuous assessment in secondary schools in Lokoja metropolis, Kogi State, while Yakub (2009) carried out his own study on the problem of continuous assessment implementation in secondary schools in Sokoto State. None of these studies were conducted on the perception of teachers on the relevance of continuous assessment to student’s academic performance


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The objective of the study of continuous assessment is to investigate the continuous assessment as a correlateof student academic performance in secondary schools. The specific factors are given as follows;

  1. To determine the factors that are responsible for the misuse of continuous assessment in Secondary schools
  2. To determine the frequency of teachers’ use of continuous assessment in their teaching and learning process
  3. To determine the efforts being made by the government to improve the use of continuous assessment in secondary schools
  4. To identify strategies to improve the use of continuous assessment in secondary schools
  5. To identify the possible suggestions for improving the use of continuous assessment for students’ academic performance in secondary schools

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions are to guide the researcher in her study and provide answer to the research questions

  1. What are the factors that are responsible for the misuse of continuous assessment in Secondary schools?
  2. How frequently do teachers use continuous assessment in their teaching and learning process?
  3. What are the efforts being made by the government to improve the use of continuous assessment in our secondary schools?
  4. How can the use of continuous assessment in our secondary schools be improved upon?
  5. In what ways or areas has these factor affect the standard of education in secondary schools?
  6. What are the possible suggestions for improving the use of continuous assessment in order to promote the standard of education in our secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study:

  • HO1: There is no significant difference in the relevance of Continuous Assessment to students’ academic performance as perceived by teachers based on gender.
  • HO2: There is no significant any difference in the relevance of Continuous Assessment to students’ academic performance as perceived by teachers based on the educational level

1.6 Significance Of The Study

It is hoped that a study of this nature will go a long way to educate both the government and the teachers to effectively recognize and make use of continuous assessment as a major factor of promoting and also as a promoter of educational standard especially at the preliminary level that is, secondary level.


1.7 Scope Of The Study

This researcher project work is purposely meant to discover all the secondary schools in Ifo Local Government Area but, due to financial problem and also time factor the research work is limited to some selected secondary schools in Ifo Local Government Area.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

In concluding this research work, having seen from the findings obtained from the three selected schools, continuous assessment constitutes the use of tests, class work and homework which consequently made it so effective and valid to students.At is Also concluded that continuous assessment determines the reliability and guidance to both teachers and students.Added to this, CA measured the behaviors of students periodically and helps actively in final certification of students.Although, inability to carry out assessment at some predetermined regular intervals hinders record of CA, yet variety of instruments are used to aid students performance and in turn adequate evaluation.In addition, the importance of CA in economics cannot be over-emphasized as it improve students talents, skills, attitudes, creativity and manipulation of objectives.

Finally, CA brings term’s work progress which the records are considered as a systematic way to arrive at a final performance of the students.

At this juncture, it ca be seen clearly that the theory and practice of continuous assessment in the entire system of education particularly from the grassroots i.e. economics has been so effective and efficient, while problems that exist in inevitable as been described by majority of the respondents in the findings obtained from the three selected schools, but with the global changes some innovation had started taking place. Students’ faith in future rely solely in policy stabilization and adequate monitoring and supervision in the activities of economics system.


5.2 Recommendations

Despite the fact that the research team has gathered so many information from the findings that continuous assessment play a vital role in the students learning process, the group therefore discovered that there are some areas that can be improved, it is in this regard that the following recommendations are put forward for consideration.

  1. That teachers should improve in test construction i.e. know the essential steps required for constructing test
  2. That teachers should improve in techniques of scoring and grading by reviewing old marking schemes, preparing a stop key for one of the past questions paper and preparing a scoring stencil for a given past multiple choice test.
  3. That teacher should have experience in assessing physical manual skills (psychomotor), this approach would be in conformity with the idea expressed in the national policy on education.
  4. Classroom teachers should improve in record keeping and construction of sample progress charts by way of organizing and storing information in a careful and ordered manner.
  5. That classroom teacher should embark on thorough reporting outcomes of students assessments in an avenue called Parent Teachers Association (PTA), Local Education Authority Personnel, the general public and the government at various levels i.e. federal, state and local governments.

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Continuous Assessment As A Correlate Of Student Academic Performance In School

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.