Construction Of Ups Using 12V Dc For 240V Ac Output

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Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Dedication


This project is dedicated to God Almighty for seeing us through this project work and the course our studies in the polytechnic.


Acknowledgement


Our profound gratitude goes to all who contributed to the success and realization of this work.

We especially express our sincere appreciated to ENGR. U.S. OSONDU, our project supervisor whose editorial attention enhanced the quality of this work.

This acknowledgement is however not complete without the appreciation of our dear parents, brothers, sisters and friends whose contribution gave us added reason to keep on moving.


Abstract


An uninterruptible power supply has been designed, constructed and tested. It has a battery driven inverter that gives an output of 1000VA, thereby inverting a 12V D. C. source to 240V ac output.

The power unit was able covert the 240V ac line supplies from NEPA to DC supply and also change the batter by converting the AC supply to DC output required for battery charging. The IC type multivibrator or oscillator amplify the DC from the battery and give an output of 50Hertz required by electrical appliance.

Finally, the UPS was able to generate a rating of 1000VA, 240V ac from the battery supply when there was power failure and it gives square wave of 50Hz frequency.

This project is divided into six chapters.

Firstly, the introduction, history and development of the UPS with aims and objectives.

Secondly, literature reviews, meaning of UPS, types of UPS and the functions of UPS, components of the UPS.

Thirdly, the transformer, fourthly, the battery charger/rectification, block diagram, schematic diagrams and principle of operation of the UPS.

Finally, design and construction of the UPS, conclusion and recommendation.


Table Of Content


  • Content page
  • Title
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 History and Development
  • 1.2 Aims and Objectives of the project

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature Review
  • 2.1 Meaning of UPS
  • 2.2 Types of UPS
  • 2.2.4 Functions of a UPS
  • 2.3 Components of a UPS

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Transformer
  • 3.1 Definition of Transformer
  • 3.2 Principle of operation of a transformer
  • 3.3 No load transformer
  • 3.4 On Load transformer
  • 3.5 Basic transformer Component
  • 3.6 Electric circuit design
  • 3.7 Rating transformer
  • 3.8 The former
  • 3.9 Lamination
  • 3.10 Design specification/data
  • 3.11 Determination of number of turns
  • 3.12 Fault finding in transformer
  • 3.13 Losses in transformer
  • 3.14 Types of cooling
  • 3.15 Efficiency of a transformer

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Battery Charger/rectification
  • 4.1 Full wave rectification
  • 4.2 Battery

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Block diagram, schematic diagram and principle of operation of the UPS
  • 5.1 Block diagram, of a UPS
  • 5.2 Description
  • 5.3 Switching circuit

Chapter Six

  • 6.0 Design construction of UPS
  • 6.1 Assembling of all sections of the UPS
  • 6.2 Construction of the UPS
  • 6.3 Soldering process
  • 6.4 Conclusion and Recommendation
  • Reference

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

A machine has been defined as a device that helps in doing work easily and accurately when energy is applied. Also electrical energy is one of the most useful source of energy for the operation of both industrial and household machines. Therefore, electricity has been said to be an instrument for the industrization and empowerment of man for better standard or living. Since most of the industrial and household machines are digitally operated when there is power failure, the commands (information) stored in their memory loss out, this makes their execution difficult and possible cause damage in the production activity.

This electric power failure is of critical concern in the operation of most industrial and household equipments (machines) such as data processing systems, health case equipment (machines), telecommunication links, etc. Therefore, since power outage is inevitable in Nigeria, Its damage to the smooth running of these digitally operated device can never be ignored.

Alternatively, a standby power supply such as automatic diesel/petrol generator set have been employed to check the problem, but due to high cost of installation and running of such generator sets, can only be afforded by organizations and few individuals.

Also, there are commercially available uninterruptible power supply (UPS), as medium and low capacity standby power supply. Therefore there is a need for the production of such uninterruptible power supply with readily available and low cost components. Hence the main focus of this project is to design and construct a UPS by converting D. C. power into A.C. power using inverters. Switching device are the simplest form of inverters and are used here because of their higher efficiency, smaller size and weight. There are other methods of converting D.C. Such as converting machinery like synchronous rotary converters, solid state converters, motor generator sets, etc.
The common application of inverters are:

  1. They are use to provide uninterruptible power supply to computers.
  2. Used in providing emergency lighting whenever there is power failure from the supply authority.
  3. Used in food processing industries where short interruption of power may spoil foodstuff.
  4. Used in speed control of induction motors.

1.1 History And Development Of Ups

The development of an uninterruptible power supply system paralleled the increase dependence of the society on electric power to provide motive power and intelligence for all aspects for modern life. These systems have become necessary since the 1920’s in areas of medical and telecommunication applications standby power supply systems set dates in 1920 with the work of Admiral Byrd which was extensively used in medical institutions. Gasoline and diesel engines was used during the world war II, as well as in microwave communication in 1955 and this was developed by N.B Tharp.

In the late 1950’s J.J Gano developed the storage battery for powering telephone central office, also the start of the computer age saw the development of the UPS using motor generator. In the area of modern UPS, the works scientist Dr. J.D. Standler and Engr. Libert whose works on the solid state UPS cannot be overlooked. Therefore as long as the need for the solution of the problem of public power failure continues, the need for the modification of the UPS will constantly continue.


1.2 Aims And Objectives Of The Project

The aim and objective of the design and construction of an uninterruptible power supply follows. Firstly, the primitive concern of providing quality and adequate power to sensitive devices like the medical faculties, data processing and communication centres.

Secondly, this work aim at the satisfaction of the statement of Alexander Kusko in his book Emergency/standby power system, that as the quest for the solution of the problem of public power failure continues, the need for the modification of the UPS will constantly be continued; by this we hereby aimed at modifying the already existing UPS.

This material contains electrical diagrams, circuits, illustrations and more (Very detailed)


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

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SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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