The Construction Of A Standard Banking Oven (Mini-Oven) With Dual Power Source (Electric / Gas)
This project is designed to make the students utilize as many theoretical and practical concept as have been instructed in alstron to mechanical engineering workshop technology.
Students are expected to learn and apply concepts, principles about energy specially the conversions of electrical energy to thermal energy, conduction and conventional heat transfer etc.
Also the determination of the properties of various ferrous and non-ferrous materials, electrical installation occults. The application of engineering measurement and quality control.
Also to build an intellectual ability in interpretation of working drawing in designing and development before and after working process. Students will get an opportunity to appreciate safety, and the use of both machine and hand tools in the course of working.
This project is undertaken to
- Compare the various ways used in the production of an electric and gas oven.
- Disclose the different types of process in the manufacturing of an electric oven and also a gas oven in the past in comparison to the morden days method.
- Exploit the local facilities available in the construction of the oven as against imported ovens.
- To exhibit the usefulness of a dual-purpose oven in the economy and technology growth of the nation.
- To know the convenience in the use of alternate power source for operation of ovens.
- Discover the basic principle involved in the design and maintenance of a dual purpose oven.
1.2.0 Importance Of Ovens
In actual analytical enunciation an oven is an enclosed chamber in which things are heated or cooked with various sources of power.
Its importance borders around its function, which are as follows;
- It is used to meet the everyday basic need of cooking, (baking, toasting, gritting, toasting) of food materials for human consumption.
- Ovens are used for heat treatment of substance in laboratories and industries.
- Also as a means of preservation by heat application to perishable materials (organic and inorganic) in general.
- Sterilization of instruments and equipment for industrial use is done by heat application using oven.
- Expelling of moisture content to a required measure in some substance is also done using oven.
- Early manufactured ovens where used as a source of room heaters during cold weathers in cold climates.
Other importance boarding around its energy source is that the use an alternative source of energy when either fossil fuel or electricity is not available. This can be relatively save cost when necessitated.
Disadvantages in the use of ovens:
- Cleaning and repair is a difficult and time- consuming endeavor.
- Expect for mass production singular construction is relatively expensive to produce.
- If precautions are not well carried out, it can result in fire hazard, which is dangerous to life and properties.
- Because ovens provides heat for one or more areas, the temperature may vary in different areas of the oven.
- Oils and moisture collected on metal surface can end up trying to rust the metal coating if not clean regularly.
- It is expensive to operate in high volume operations.
- Speed seem to be the key factor and time taken to get to required constant temperature can be wastage of time.
- Access to internal component n case of adjustment and maintenance is tasking as it requires an entire disassembling.
- In case of mechanical faults resulting from shut down, an entire disassembling and requires is required.
- Due to its function by heating, there is always a premature wear or mechanical failure of some of the internal component.
5.1.0 Performance Evaluation For Oven
Since efficiency of an equipment is given by
È = output x 100%
Er x 100%
Er = amount of heat energy required for effective wasting 25kg
Eg = amount of heat energy generated during roasting
= power x time
= 1000 x 25 x 60j
= 991.25 x1000 x100
Therefore, the machine efficiency,
È = 66%
5.2.0 Care And Maintenance
- Clean heating mate with a soft, damp cloth or non-abrasive cleaner. Wipe dry.
- Clean the oven regularly as built up grease left in the application use can cause a fire.
- Unplug the system and wait until it cools down completely to clean. It will take about two hours for the system to cool down.
- Ensure that the oven is not kept under rain or the sun for this has an effect of rusting the body.
- Clean the clump tray and the bottom of the baking chamber regularly.
5.3.0 Standards And Symbols
T = 273
Where = T – temperature in Kelvin
q – Temperature in Celsius
Resistance Of Conductor:
This is ratio of the potential difference across the conductor to the current flowing through the conductor.
R = V/I
Cutting Speed For Drill
D = Diameter of drill
N = Number of revolutions per minute.
5.4.0 Gauge Reading
Linear expansively = µ L2 –L1
µ = Linear expansively
L2 = Length of metal at 02
L1 = Length of metal at 01
0 = temperature rise 02 –01
Linear expansively = could be define as the increase of a unit length of any material when heated through one degree Kelvin
µ= Increase in length
Original length ´ temperature rise
5.5.0 Combustion Of Methane Gas
Methane is the simplest compound in the alkane series with the molecular formula CH4. Besides being a component of petroleum gas, it is the major constituent of natural gas, which issues from the ground in great quantities. It is also found in poorly ventilated coal mine cause of explosions in these mines methane can be prepared by heating sodium ethanoate with an alkali, usually sodalme. Viz cH3cooNaa, + NaoH(3) ® Na2 co3o, + cH4(g).
The general equation for combustion alkanes can be represented as follows
CxHy(g) + [x + y/4]O2(g) ® HµCo(g ) + xCo2(g)
Methane for example, burns in air or oxygen with a pale non-luminous flame to produce steam, carbon IV oxide and or lot of heat.
CH4(g) + 20(g) – ® 2Hµo(g) + Co2(g)
A mixture of methane an d air or oxygen may explode violently when ignited. This is the main cause of explosions in coal-mines.
The construction (design) of a standard dual power over should observe a safe working condition. Though dangers are associated with heat elements and combustion of gases, however, following proper systematic maintenance and precautionary instructions, a safe and efficient use of appliance will be achieved.
Situations of electric fire or gas explosion occur due to lack of observance of safely precaution of used or malfunctioning of component parts.
For the reason users manuals are always provided also with diagrammatic explosions of instructions to enable the cayman to effectively handle these appliance.
It should however be noted that the kind of oven with dual power serves very necessary purpose as financial capacity permits and the availability of power source. And it is more comfortable to use in terms of economic reason.
Furthermore, this project work has enhanced the creative and initiative ability of all involved as regard industrial relations. And has practically enlighten all involved on workshop safely, the use of machines and hand tools.
In terms of formation of parts, the method of production that enhances mass production should b e adopted for more accurate and loss time production to necessitate availability in this products in the market.
Having accomplish the goal of this project, we therefore recommend the following that the machine be mass produced and made available for domestic use.
That further studies on the project be done by subsequent final year students so as to improve on the machine standard.
That the project execution be subsidized financially by the department so as to and research.
That a list of machines capable of solving critical societal problem be made available to final year students as project to work.
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