Construction Of A Model Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Construction Of A Model Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger


The precise content of this project was to construct a model shell and tube heat exchanger.

The material for construction of this project (equipment) and their dimensions are as follows:

  • 500mm length of a tube bundle
  • 20mm diameter of the tube bundle
  • 650mm length of the shell
  • 120mm diameter of the shell
  • 70mm length of the inlet and outlet
  • 20.5mm diameter of the inlet and outlet
  • 160mm diameter of the flanges
  • 8mm diameter of the holes on the flanges.

The construction of this equipment involves a series of processes which includes:

  1. Marking out which was done using metre rule, pair of compasses, scribers and punch.
  2. Cutting of the marked materials to shape
  3. Folding to shape where necessary
  4. Rolling and boring holes as appropriate
  5. Welding together by electric welding
  6. Filling for good finish
  7. Assembling together of the individual component.

The carefulness with which the marking out, welding and final assemble of the work was done made it possible for us to obtain an equipment suitable for use as a model shell and tube heat exchanger.

It is established that a horizontal heat exchanger with cold water at the shell side and the treated steam at the tube side is adequate for this operation, with the aim of cooling the steam from the distillation column.

The introduction of vapour (or any hot fluid) and removal of condensate (or a cooler fluid) is near perfection (100%) while the equipment being a heat exchanger is used to recover vapourised liquid in its former form (liquid) or removed heat from a very hot processed fluid. Significantly, this equipment is of great need when vapourised liquid must be recovered back as liquid at specified conditions.

Table of Contents

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • Introduction
  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose/Aims/Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Scope and limitation of the study
  • 1.5 Method of Research
  • 1.6 Significance of the study

Chapter Two

  • Literature Review

Chapter Three

  • Methodology

Chapter Four

  • Results / Analysis

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Discussions
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix


  • A – Total surface area of the exchanger (m2)
  • as – Goss Sectional Area for flow (m2)
  • Cp – Specific Heat Capacity of fluid (j/kg.k)
  • Di – Shell Internal Diameter (m)
  • De – Equivalent mean diameter (m)
  • Gs – Fluid Mass Velocity kg/m2s
  • Gt,Mn- Mass flow rate of fluid in the tube kg/s
  • g – Groove depth
  • hi – Heat transfer co-efficient of the tube w/m2.k
  • hio – Film heat transfer co-efficient in the tube w/m2.k
  • ho – Film heat co-efficient in the shell w/m2.k
  • di – Internal diameter of the tube m
  • k – Thermal conductivity w/mk
  • c – Length of Tube
  • LMTD – Log mean of temperature difference 0C or k
  • Mc – Mass flow rate of cold water in the shell (kg/s)
  • Do – Outer diameter of tubes m
  • T1 – T2 – Inlet and outlet temperature of steam 0C or k.
  • t – shall thickness m
  • u – Overall heat transfer co-efficient w/m2. K
  • v – Volumetric flow rate m3/s
  • Pa – Density of water kg/m3
  • U – Viscosity of water MS/m2
  • Dt – Temperature different 0C or k

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The title of this project is construction of a model shell and tube heat exchanger.

Heat exchanger is a device in which heat is transferred from one fluid stream to another normally by the combined process of conduction and convention. Heat exchangers are the most important item in many thermal systems (Abalu 2006).

According to Jaeger 1995, heat exchangers are devices used to transfer heat. On the basis of numerous application in the industry for which they are designed and manufactured, heat exchangers are often given various names such as boilers, steam generator, automobile radiators, evaporators, condensers, heaters, coolers generators etc.

It is used to transfer heat from one fluid steam to another. it is also used to predict the amount of energy required to change a system from one equilibrium state to another (Abalu 2006).

There are various types of heat exchanger equipment generally defined by the function it performs in a chemical industry, they are; regenerator, open-type heat exchanger and closed-type heat exchanger or recuperated (Wickinson 1970).

Since our major concern is construction of model shell and tube heat exchanger, which is a type of recuperates or closed-type heat exchanger.

Model shell and tube heat exchangers constitute the bulk of unfired heat transfer equipment used in chemical process plants. They are found in different forms as fixed – tube-sheet heat exchanger, u-tube heat exchanger, floating heat exchanger, and internal floating heat exchanger. They can be inform of; double-pipe heat exchangers. Plate-type heat exchangers, air-cooled heat exchangers and graphite block heat exchangers (Harriot 1985).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

There are some problems associated with the study of heat exchanger:


Due to lectures and other school activities like practical’s and assignments we do not normally have enough time to visit the library and cyber café for the study of modern shell and tube heat exchanger.

Browsing Problem:

When browsing, sometimes there is network problem in the sense that the result will not come out easily, sometimes it will not be easy to fishout the main thought in the outcome.


There is high cost of construction of a modern shell and tube heat exchanger and browsing for the study.

1.3 Aims of the Study

The study is being carried out in order to:

  1. Make appropriate thermal control in the chemical industries since the most important aim in the chemical engineering sector of any plant is to control the flow of thermal energy between two thermal.
  2. Enable us to predict the amount of energy required to change a system from one equilibrium state to another
  3. Examine some of the techniques through which heat is transferred from one fluid stream to another.
  4. Know the rate at which the exchange of heat take place.

1.5 Methods of Research

Since the major concern is the construction of model shell and tube heat exchanger, the research method used was mainly constructional method of model shell and tube heat exchanger.

1.6 Significant of the Study

The future developments in the aerospace industries will hinge mainly upon the case with which structures and engines can be cooled; modern electrical and electronic plants require efficient dissipation of losses converted to thermal energy; the design of chemical engineering plant is usually governed by heat transfer and the analogues mass transfer processes and even civil engineers must take account of thermal effects in buildings and structures.

Process fluids from a chemical reactor are brought to reasonable temperature by transferring heat from this fluid (Kern 1950). Heat exchange or transfers is a major principle of industrial operation.

Chapter Five

5.1 Discussion

The purpose of this project is to construct a model shell and tube heat exchanger.

Heat exchanger as stated earlier is a device used for the cooling and heating of fluid. The construction type a model shell and tube exchanger whole parts which include- shell, tubes flanges bonnets baffles, bolts and net etc are normal fixed together to effect efficiency in operation.

There is a standard for the dimension of the tubes for heat exchangers. Any derivation from this standard will effect the performance of the equipments. The constructed heat exchanger was not of the standard dimensions due to minor errors encountered during the fabrication.

The shell side of the tubular heat exchanger is the external part of the exchanger. It is always desired to be made of any material with low thermal conductivity, high resistance to wear and corrosion. From the research findings from text and other research centres, I was shown that heat exchanger (tubular) shell are thick with a minimum thickness of about 9-5mm and length of about 16ft and above. It was also found from research that the shell side is often made of stainless steel. The constructed one was made with a carbon steel instead of the stainless steelens discussed the earlier due to cost.

The tube bundle are the most important part of the tubular heat exchanger. It consists of tubes, tube plates and floating heat. From research work, the tubes are made of materials that posses high thermal conductivity and high resistance to corrosion and wear. Cooper has been found to be the material that posses these qualities which is a factor needed by the tube for effective transfer of heat energy from fluid in the tube to that in the shell side.

Baffles are means through which the direction of the flow of the shell fluid is made possible across the tube bundle in order to obtain’ high heat transfer co-efficient. They are usually arranged perpendicular to the shell axis to increase the velocity of the fluid over the tube, baffles are properly fitted across the tube bundle.

To effect good and easy cleaning of the outside of the bundle, proper choice of pitch arrangement was made. A square pitch while permit cleaning easily of tubes was used. There is also an alternative which services of functions when a very clean fluid is used ie triangular pitch.

5.2 Conclusion

To successfully construct a model shell and tube heat exchanger which can be used industrially, thermal considerations, general design considerations pressure drop, flow pattern and most expediently cost of materials and economic factors should be strictly adhered to because the sole aim of any engineering construction is to produce an equipment with high performance or efficiency at the least cost.

5.3 Recommendation

The production of this equipment though complex was not supposed to be as tedious as it was. This is as a result of the production site inadequacies which is the IMT industrial centre. Effort should be intensified to make sure that the “centre” workers are always available to attend to students in order to remove this hitches.

The equipment is recommended for use in the students laboratory demonstration so that students can well visualize how a model shell and tube heat exchanger looks like and how it works.

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