Construction Of Sheel And Tube Heat Exchanger

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Construction Of Sheel And Tube Heat Exchanger


Abstract


The aim of this project was to construct shell and tube heat exchanger with fixed boundless. A heat exchanger that would cool 5 x 5 x 10 – 3 kg/s of steam at a calculated heat load of 152 – 395/S was fabricated. The steam is to reach the heat exchanger from a distillation column at a temperature of 300k. The specification of the layout as well as the detailed mechanical design were assumed and also calculated.

It is established that a horizontal heat exchanger with cold water at the shall side and the treated steam at the tube side is adequate for this operation, with the aim of cooling the steam from the distillation column.

The available area obtained from calculation is 1.0m2 and also the overall heat transfer coefficient obtained is 4.10W/M2k. it is also seen that the heat exchanger is satisfactory and consists of five copper tubes of inside diameter 90mm and 5920mm length. The shell inside diameter 810mm and 5.770mm length. The tube and shell heat exchanger has a total length of 5820mm.

The material of construction for the shell side is stainless steel while copper tubes were used for the tubes inside.

The total cost of the heat exchanger was N12,000.


Chapter One


Introduction

In large industrial processes, it is necessary to transfer heat between the system and its surrounding and the device whose primary objective to do it efficiently and effectively is the heat exchanger.

Therefore heat transfer is defined as the rate of exchange of heat between one body (hot) and another cold.

The most important aim in the chemical engineering sector of any plant is to control the flow of thermal energy between two terminals. It there existing temperature gradient of change.

In industrial process, the heat exchange is a very important unit in all the processing industries that their design has been highly developed. Designers of heat exchanger must be constantly aware of the difference between the idealized conditions for and under which basic knowledge was obtained and the real conditions of the mechanical expressions of their design and it’s environment.

The design must satisfy process operational requirement such as availability and maintainability.

Heat transfer or thermo-kinetics is another chapter of the theoretical fundamentals of heat engineering dealing with the processes of heat propagation. In nature and engineering, the most diverce process of heat propagation are observed and also heat flow from bodies (or their section) of a lower temperature. During the process of heat transfer, from one body to another heat flow continues till their temperature became equal be come to equilibrium state of temperature.

Modes Of Heat Transfer

Heat is transferred by conduction, convection and thermal radiation. In practice, heat is usually transmitted by two or all the three modes of heat transfer concurrently.

Conduction

Heat conduction of simply conduction is the transfer of heat by a direct contact between the elementary particles of a body, Viz molecules, atoms, free electrons, when the bodies involved are at rest.

Pure conduction takes place in opaque or non transpired solid.

In goses, conduction occurs due to random motion of the molecules (the diffuse from high concentration region to lower region. In this made of heat transfer, it is very common with metals and thus call for high thermal conductivity. Also the heat transfer per unit area is proportional to normal temperature gradient given as:


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