The Construction Of Sand Filter For Portable Water Filtration With Stainless Steel Material

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

The Construction Of Sand Filter For Portable Water Filtration With Stainless Steel Material


The project constructed was sand filter; equipment for portable water filtration. This was constructed using a mild steel material. This was because of the excellent high qualities of mild steel such as; durability tensile strength, high corrosion resistance and also relative in cost compare to other special alloyed materials, like stainless steel.

The send filter was chosen to be in cylindrical shap, to ensure a maximum pressure for proper filtration to occur and avoid edges that could attract dirt.

The tap, which was filled in the bottom section of the equipment, was used to run out the filtrate.

Finally the construction of sand filter was successful having an overall dimension in millimeters (mm) with a filtering capacity of 25 liters per day and may be conveniently used by small scale industry.

Table Of Content

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • Introduction
  • Scope
  • Aim and objective

Chapter Two

  • Literature review
  • Theory of filtration
  • Types of filtration
  • Classification of filter medium
  • Study of send filter equipment
  • Description of equipment

Chapter Three

  • Method of construction

Chapter Four

  • Discussion
  • Problems encountered during construction
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • Appendices
  • References

Chapter One


Filtration is the removal of solid particles from a fluid by passing the fluid through a filtering medium or septum, on which the solids are deposited, example of such filtering medium is known as sand filter.

The fluid may be a liquid or gas; the valuable stream from the filter may be fluid, the solid on both. Sometimes it is neither as when waste solid, must be separated from waste prior to disposal, in chemical laboratory.

In chemical laboratory, filtration is often carried out in a form of buchnor funnel and liquid is sucked through a thin layer of particles using a source of vacuum or even sampler cases, the suspension is pored into a conical funnel filtered unit a filter perper.

Generally, a thick layer of particles or solid particles as to be formed and in order to achieve a high rate of passage of fluid through the solids, high pressure will be required and it will be necessary to provide a far greater area.

Fluid flows through a filter medium by virtue of pressure differences across the medium. The volume of the suspension to be handled will very from the extremely large quantities involved in water purification and are handling in the miming industry to relative small quantity in the fine chemical industry where the variety of solids would be considered.

For large scale filtration, cloth or canvas is frequently used as the medium, and the liquid is forced by pressure through the bed of the solid that collects impurities in the liquid. A common method of large scale and domestic filtration is the purification of water by collecting some suspended penticle on a bed composed of coarse gravel covers with fine layers of sand. The water sinks down through gravel and is run off by gravity. The equipment used is the sand filter.

However, filters are divided into three major groups such as cake fitters, clarifying filters, and gross flow filters; there are different types of filters such as pressure filters, rotary filters, cake filters, string discharge filters, centrifugal filters, granular filters and send filter.


The constructional project involves the project of slow sand filter for portable water filtration. Only two different sand layers of varying sizes were used as filter medium due to size required and cost implications.

Among other materials of construction, mild steel sheet were used due to its low resistance to corrosion, compare to stainless steel sheet, but among other considerations, availability cost were the major constraints. Therefore it has high quality properties like hardness, resistance to corrosion, resistance to chemicals, and resistance to heat.

Aims and Objectives

The aim of constructing sand filter equipment for portable water filtration is to learn a craft work. Construction of sand filter enable students to be conversent with the use of industrial equipment such as fabrication machine, flooding machine, bending machine and drilling machine etc.

The construction of sand slitter gives a basic knowledge, which will equip student in designing of other industrial equipment. Therefore, sand filter is an equipment designed for the separation of solid material from liquid or gas. Sand filter are constructed for water purification and removal of suspended matter particles from a liquid in the industries, laboratories and domestic home etc.

Also, the equipment determine the amount of that would passes through a particular amount of sand and the amount of water that was displaced in the particle.

Chapter Five


The construction project cannot go beyond small-scale industry, because of its filtrate capacity of 25 liters per day. In large industry the sand filter has huge filtrate capacity and also has high corrosion resistance because of stainless steel material used for construction.

Mild steel material was used for the construction of this project. Though it has low corrosion resistance, but among other material it ahs an excellent qualities such as machinability, high tensile strength, high corrosion resistant and high durability.

In addition the type of filtering medium used for the construction has low filtrate quality compared to the standard quality sand filter.

The stainless tap was then constructed to the downward part of the bottom section of the filter equipment. It serves as water outlet. The rubber round the tap was put to prevent water leakage.

The filter cover diameter was 22.5cm but 3cm of this measurement was bent inwards to serve as ring and to prevent accident through the sharpness of the edges of the cover.

A rod of diameter 2cm and 7cm long was constructed on top of the filter equipment cover, the rod serves as an inlet and was welded to the cover by an electrode. This was used because it gives a smother edge than wire.
Finally, 7cm of height was marked out on the second compartment which has the length of 25cm. This was done because the height of the particle in the top section of the equipment is 9cm, and a space of 16cm is given so that there will be free passage of water through the sand, alter the sand has been retained by the second filter.

Problems Encountered During Construction

The problems that were encountered during this construction of sand filter were not much.

  1. The tap was not properly fixed which result to water droping.
  2. The mild steel could not fold to its desired shap, but later folded to the desired shape.
  3. The holes drilled were hard to drill. All these problem were latter corrected on the construction.


The sand filter is fairly cheep and effective in the separation of solid particles from a liquid. The materials of construction were same how easily obtained and therefore, construction work was made easy.

Maintenance work can be carried out since the materials for construction were bought within the state and also they are significantly sourced.


The sand filter equipment is relatively cheap considering the costing, and the material of construction are not locally obtained. It is therefore recommended for domestic use and industrial use as well.

Also since one part of the equipment can be detached, that is the filters, maintenance work is easy. Also it is recommended for use in performing practical and in commercial centers like food industries. However, the filter material used in the construction is not exactly as the 250cm – type used for standard experiment.

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