Construction Of Reinforced Concrete Seat

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

Construction Of Reinforced Concrete Seat


The construction of reinforced concrete seat is a project work that deals with the production of reinforced concrete. How reinforced concrete is being produced using the aggregate coarse aggregate cement, water and reinforcement bars. The concrete mixed together in dry state and inter added with water.

A formwork was prepared in other to create a shape for the seat that will be produced after the concrete is being poured into the formwork.

The fresh concrete was later poured into the form work and allowed to dry. It was cured in other to increase the strength of the concrete.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One:

1.1 Introduction

  • 1.2 History background
  • 1.3 Statement of the problem
  • 1.4 Aim and objective
  • 1.5 Scope of study
  • 1.6 Significance of study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms

Chapter Two:

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Concrete
  • 2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of concrete
  • 2.2.1 Advantages of concrete
  • 2.2.2 Disadvantages of concrete
  • 2.3 Fresh concrete
  • 2.4 Workability
  • 2.4.1 Factor affecting workability
  • 2.5 Segregation and bleeding
  • 2.6 Component of concrete
  • 2.6.1 Aggregate
  • 2.6.2 Cement
  • 2.6.3 Water
  • 2.7 Steel reinforcement
  • 2.8 Formwork
  • 2.9 Curing

Chapter Three:

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Procedures
  • 3.2 Formwork and its preparation
  • 3.3 Cutting and general arrangement for reinforcement for sales and stands
  • 3.4 Reinforcement of seat
  • 3.5 Batching and mixing of aggregate

Chapter Four:

4.0 Presentation of result

Chapter Five:

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One

1.1 Introduction

Reinforced concrete is the most widely used structural material world wide. However, it’s ability to perform as designed is dependent on it being properly constructed.

Reinforced concrete seat is a seat constructed with cement aggregates and other materials such as reinforcement and water. It is essential to the durability of reinforced concrete structures that the specified concrete cover to the reinforcement is achieved.

The placement of concrete seat in a place can create a great focal point for relaxation within the school vicinity.

It is be design for people’s comfort while relaxing on it. It is design in a way that it will be long lasting. The reinforced concrete seat was constructed to carry the weight at different people without failure or deformation i.e the imposed load to avoid sagging or failure thereby causing harm to the people.

1.2 History Background

The roman first invented what today is called hydraulic cement – base concrete. They build numerous concrete structures, including the Pantheon in Rome, one of the finest architecture that survived to the day.
The name concrete comes from Latin word “concretus” which means to grow together.

Chemical hydration process which mainly occur over the time scale of hours and days causes the material to grow together from a viscoelastic moldable liquid into a hard, rigid solid. In our world today, concrete has become ubiquitous and in fact, it is hard to imagine modern life without it about five billion tones at concrete are sued around the world each year. The cement used mostly in today’s concrete is called port land cement.

The process to produce port land cement was invented by Joseph Aspdin in the early 1800’s in England. It is important to remember that cement is the powder that reacts with water to form cement past, a hard, solid material that form the matrix for the concrete composite, the addition of said (fine aggregate) that are up to a few millimeter in diameter make mortar, and the addition of rocks (coarse aggregate) at up to a few centimeters in diameter makes concrete and the pouring at concrete into reinforcement make the reinforced concrete. And this can be used for the construction of concrete seat.

1.3 Statement Of The Problem

Concrete is an excellent material, but it is not perfect. You don’t have to look very far to identify the real life concrete problem.

However, most of the problem are avoidable or fixable unfortunately most concrete problem are the result of error with the finisher. And builder, to maximize profit, take the lowest bidder. The lowest bidder uses the latest amount of man power to get the job done and was cheaper, lower quality concrete with low compressive strength and inexpensive admixture filler (fly-ash).

Most problem associated with concrete arises from the inability of the finisher to finish the concrete slab correctly, because of production rate and manpower.

These are the most common problem associated with concrete.

Surface Scaling / Spalling

Surface scaling is when the surface of hardened concrete breaks at to a depth of 1.5mm of 5mm, generally during the first year of placement. This occurs because at the application of sodium chloride (salt) on concrete with inadequate strength.


Cracking is break that occur in area other than those place. Cracks seldom result in structural problem. Some of the reason why concrete crack include excess water in mix, rapid drying of concrete, improper strength of concrete for the job, improperly placed tension control joints etc.


Dusting is the presence of a powdery material at the surface of a hardened slab. It is caused by insufficient or no curing of the surface. Omission of concrete often result in a soft concrete surface.


Pop out is a conical shaped fragment that breaks out of the surface of concrete. It is caused by the expansion at porous aggregate particles having a high rate of absorption.

1.4 Aim And Objective

This project has the purpose of expanding the knowledge and skill involve in construction and also to acquire knowledge at the construction of concrete seat (reinforced).

The aim of this project also focus on creating a place of relaxation in Federal Polytechnic Nekede. This project will also enable the student to be self reliance even when they are out at school.

1.5 Scope Of Study

The scope of the project is to select a suitable location. Also to select the best material suitable to the location/site of construction. To also draw, design and detail the concrete seat as well as construct the seat.

1.6 Significance Of Study

Reinforced concrete, both insitu and precast , for any structural project should comply with British standard 8110, (BS8110).

1.7 Definition Of Terms


Aggregate in building and construction material sued for mixing with cement, bitumen, lime, gypsum, or other adhesive to form concrete or mortar.


A mixture of cement, sand (fine aggregate) and cement and water.


A mixture of cement, sand, stone (coarse aggregate) and water.

Reinforcing Steel Bar:

They are used for reinforcement of concrete structures, manufacture of anchor bolts etc.

Super Structure:

That part of the structure that is above the ground level.

Sub-Structure / Foundation:

Is the lower portion of the structure usually located below the ground level.

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendation

5.0 Conclusion

Construction of the reinforced concrete seat is an opportunity to increase the knowledge and skill of all the student involve in the construction.

The construction turned out to be a less stressful project.

The factor that tend to contribute to the minimal stress encountered was the fact that finance were needed to collect the material for the project, which all the project group complied. Also much research was made in the library and the internet which the work more smoothly.

5.1 Recommendation

Studying the construction of concrete seat as a branch of course in civil engineering department, I recommend the following to the school Federal Polytechnic Nekede.

  1. That the school should provide some material and tools even machines that will be used during the practical and project execution. Examples: concrete mixer, hand saw shovel, aggregates etc which will be use by student to enable a smooth and easy work and also to help the student know how to use some machines involve in construction.
  2. That project work like this should be given to student when the time for project comes.
  3. That student should perform practical involve in the practical to acquire knowledge and skill in any project given e. g wood work etc.

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