Construction Of Reinforced Concrete Seat
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This project is dedicated to God Almighty for His wisdom and knowledge granted to me throughout the period of this project. May His name be highly exalted.
Firstly, I thank God for the strength and grace granted to me throughout this project. Also I extend my appreciation to my mother Mrs Obiofili and to the Odogwu of Okpanam, Chief Peter Dunkwu and my brother and sisters for their financial and moral support which they gave me in my academic pursuit.
I also wish to thank my Supervisor ENGR. ONUGHA G.O and ENGR. CHIMEZIE NNAMDI. M for their wonderful support he gave me during the period of this project.
I am not also forgetting the man that supported me spiritually, Pastor Prosper Obiazi and also all the member of MOUNTINT CLUB and PROJECT 25 KLUBB, also Sir Chris I. Ogbechie, Prof. Chris Onwuka and Mr. Ogwuma also my friends who all supported me financially. May God Almighty continue to bless them abundantly….. Amen.
The construction of reinforced concrete seat is a project work that deals with the production of reinforced concrete. How reinforced concrete is being produced using the aggregate coarse aggregate cement, water and reinforcement bars. The concrete mixed together in dry state and inter added with water.
A formwork was prepared in other to create a shape for the seat that will be produced after the concrete is being poured into the formwork.
The fresh concrete was later poured into the form work and allowed to dry. It was cured in other to increase the strength of the concrete.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of contents vi
- 1.1 Introduction 1
- 1.2 History background 2
- 1.3 Statement of the problem 3
- 1.4 Aim and objective 5
- 1.5 Scope of study 6
- 1.6 Significance of study 6
- 1.7 Definition of terms 6
- 2.0 Literature Review 8
- 2.1 Concrete 8
- 2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of concrete 10
- 2.2.1 Advantages of concrete 12
- 2.2.2 Disadvantages of concrete 13
- 2.3 Fresh concrete 13
- 2.4 Workability 13
- 2.4.1 Factor affecting workability 14
- 2.5 Segregation and bleeding 15
- 2.6 Component of concrete 16
- 2.6.1 Aggregate 16
- 2.6.2 Cement 16
- 2.6.3 Water 17
- 2.7 Steel reinforcement 18
- 2.8 Formwork 18
- 2.9 Curing 19
- 3.1 Methodology 20
- 3.2 Procedures 20
- 3.3 Formwork and its preparation 21
- 3.4 Cutting and general arrangement for reinforcement for sales and stands 21
- 3.5 Reinforcement of seat 22
- 3.6 Batching and mixing of aggregate 25
- Presentation of result 26
- 5.1 Conclusion 29
- 5.2 Recommendation 29
- References 31
Reinforced concrete is the most widely used structural material world wide. However, it’s ability to perform as designed is dependent on it being properly constructed.
Reinforced concrete seat is a seat constructed with cement aggregates and other materials such as reinforcement and water. It is essential to the durability of reinforced concrete structures that the specified concrete cover to the reinforcement is achieved.
The placement of concrete seat in a place can create a great focal point for relaxation within the school vicinity.
It is be design for people’s comfort while relaxing on it. It is design in a way that it will be long lasting. The reinforced concrete seat was constructed to carry the weight at different people without failure or deformation i.e the imposed load to avoid sagging or failure thereby causing harm to the people.
1.2 History Background
The roman first invented what today is called hydraulic cement – base concrete. They build numerous concrete structures, including the Pantheon in Rome, one of the finest architecture that survived to the day.
The name concrete comes from Latin word “concretus” which means to grow together.
Chemical hydration process which mainly occur over the time scale of hours and days causes the material to grow together from a viscoelastic moldable liquid into a hard, rigid solid. In our world today, concrete has become ubiquitous and in fact, it is hard to imagine modern life without it about five billion tones at concrete are sued around the world each year. The cement used mostly in today’s concrete is called port land cement.
The process to produce port land cement was invented by Joseph Aspdin in the early 1800’s in England. It is important to remember that cement is the powder that reacts with water to form cement past, a hard, solid material that form the matrix for the concrete composite, the addition of said (fine aggregate) that are up to a few millimeter in diameter make mortar, and the addition of rocks (coarse aggregate) at up to a few centimeters in diameter makes concrete and the pouring at concrete into reinforcement make the reinforced concrete. And this can be used for the construction of concrete seat.
1.3 Statement Of The Problem
Concrete is an excellent material, but it is not perfect. You don’t have to look very far to identify the real life concrete problem.
However, most of the problem are avoidable or fixable unfortunately most concrete problem are the result of error with the finisher. And builder, to maximize profit, take the lowest bidder. The lowest bidder uses the latest amount of man power to get the job done and was cheaper, lower quality concrete with low compressive strength and inexpensive admixture filler (fly-ash).
Most problem associated with concrete arises from the inability of the finisher to finish the concrete slab correctly, because of production rate and manpower.
These Are The Most Common Problem Associated With Concrete.
Surface Scaling / Spalling
Surface scaling is when the surface of hardened concrete breaks at to a depth of 1.5mm of 5mm, generally during the first year of placement. This occurs because at the application of sodium chloride (salt) on concrete with inadequate strength.
Cracking is break that occur in area other than those place. Cracks seldom result in structural problem. Some of the reason why concrete crack include excess water in mix, rapid drying of concrete, improper strength of concrete for the job, improperly placed tension control joints etc.
Dusting is the presence of a powdery material at the surface of a hardened slab. It is caused by insufficient or no curing of the surface. Omission of concrete often result in a soft concrete surface.
Pop out is a conical shaped fragment that breaks out of the surface of concrete. It is caused by the expansion at porous aggregate particles having a high rate of absorption.
1.4 Aim And Objective
This project has the purpose of expanding the knowledge and skill involve in construction and also to acquire knowledge at the construction of concrete seat (reinforced).
The aim of this project also focus on creating a place of relaxation in Federal Polytechnic Nekede. This project will also enable the student to be self reliance even when they are out at school.
1.5 Scope Of Study
The scope of the project is to select a suitable location. Also to select the best material suitable to the location/site of construction. To also draw, design and detail the concrete seat as well as construct the seat.
1.6 Significance Of Study
Reinforced concrete, both insitu and precast , for any structural project should comply with British standard 8110, (BS8110).
1.7 Definition Of Terms
Aggregate in building and construction material sued for mixing with cement, bitumen, lime, gypsum, or other adhesive to form concrete or mortar.
A mixture of cement, sand (fine aggregate) and cement and water.
A mixture of cement, sand, stone (coarse aggregate) and water.
Reinforcing Steel Bar:
They are used for reinforcement of concrete structures, manufacture of anchor bolts etc.
That part of the structure that is above the ground level.
Sub-Structure / Foundation:
Is the lower portion of the structure usually located below the ground level.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.