Construction Of A Metal Rack

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Construction Of A Metal Rack


This project report is on the construction of a metal rack which can be put to use in laboratories, industries, shops, kitchens, and also for displaying various articles. The construction work was done in a mechanical work shop.

Racks are of various types which concides with the numerous uses to which they are applied. Some types of racks includes wooden racks and metal. The metal rack was constructed using a 1.5mm square pipe and a 1-2mm thickness of mud steel plate. The construction procedure or stips includes marking out, cutting weeding, filling and painting. A guage 12 electrode was used for the weeding process. The rack, after construction has dimensions as follows 3ft height, 2ft width and 8ft x 2 length.

Certain safety precautions were observed during the construction process so as to avoid accidents and as well, produce an error free rack.

Chapter One


Background to the Study

A rack is a set of shelves with partitions, either built into a room laboratory, industries, shops, homes, business centre as a fixed or a separate piece of furniture used for storing like chemical reagent, Newspaper, kitchen utensil provision and many order items. These rack used in the laboratory and industries are used for storage. The materials selection for the construction of any rack strongly depends on the properties and purposes the rack will serve. Generally considering all the materials and now material all have their individual merits. But point to comparison between their will definitely show that in general metal have a lot of advantages over non-metals.

For example while many types of metal are suitable for high temperature operation non-materials such as wood and glass are suitable for lower and limited range of temperature metal posses a wider rang of chemical stability than non-metals. So, it can be said that the obvious advantage of first cost cheapness of non-metallic materials is counseled by other disadvantages of non-metals the most glaring of which is the that of narrow applicability. When considering the cost also, the first cost of materials is even not taken as sufficient indictor on which to base the selection of construction materials. The following cost factors among other, must be considered.

Fabrication cost, installation cost, maintenance costs and cost of replacement. These costs must be considered in the materials selection for construction. Racks drive it name and purpose sometimes from the material of construction and also the shape it takes. In the laboratory, chemicals are arranged in a chronological order, and equipment or apparatus are also arranged in are in the rack for protections of the necessary chemical or equipment. This is usually made of metals. Most racks used for laboratory purposes such as storing of chemicals and equipments are usually made of metals, and in this case, there is much observation of all the operation level involved in the construction of metal rack. This is because of the hard nature in the curing off the excess of the metal during construction. Instead the use of welding is used in the arrangement of different part of the rack. Another major difference better than those rack made of wood and those made of metal is that, wood, wooden rack are always easy to spoil or get damage while metal rack last longer. There are several types of metals that can be used for construction. Metals for construction include Gold Silver, Bronze an Aluminum Iron and steel. There are usually about three type of steel as it constitutes the widest use for metal. These types include low Carbon steel that has about 0.3% carbon, medium carbon steel, that contain about 0.3% 0.7% carbon and high carbon steel that contain 0.7% -17% carbon.

Steel are used in the construction of metal rack, because it is soft to cut, bending and serial operation applied to the metal during construction. The galvanized type of steel has a nature of stainless steel and so doe not support nits. Because of this, it is not painted after using it for construction. In the fabrication of sheets of metals several types of gauge are produced. They include gauge 22, gauge 20,18,16,20, gauge 18, gauge 16, gauge 14, 12, 10, gauge 22 has the highest thickness. Gauge is and gauge 16 are the best types for construction metal rack.

Research Objective

The main objective of this research is to construct a metal rack

Limitations of the study

The demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaire in timely fashion was very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all businesses or organizations but is restricted to the selected organization used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided.

Financial constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

Automated Rack Supported Warehouses (ARSW) differ from traditional pallet racks (SR), being designed to resist besides self-weight and stored goods, non-structural components and equipment, environmental and seismic actions. EN 16681:2016 is then not valid for the design and the only possible reference standards are Eurocodes 3 and 8 for steel structures. But ARSW also differ from steel buildings mainly due to their geometry, e.g. high number of storeys of reduced height: the efficacy of Eurocodes’ design rules when applied to ARSW shall be then assessed.

To this aim, a case-study building was sized following an elastic and a dissipative approach. The two strategies were compared in terms of design procedure, construction feasibility, costs and structural performance.

In the dissipative Design Approach (DA) the satisfaction of the overstrength variation limit along the height imposed by Eurocode 8 was not always possible. This was mainly due to the geometry of ARSW and resulted in two non-dissipative portions located in correspondence of the bottom and of the top of the DA-ARSW (Fig. 5). The respect of slenderness limits (1.3 ≤ λ ≤ 2.0) was pursued through a wide variation of sections’ profiles along the height.

If costs related to steel material are lower in the case of EA-ARSW (9.28 tons vs 10.47 tons), connections in DAARSW show higher variability and higher difficulty of realization due to capacity design requirements, increasing construction costs and manpower effort.

Nonlinear static pushover analyses were adopted to assess the structural performance. EA and DA-ARSW experienced a non-uniform collapse mechanism involving only the bottom and middle parts of the structures, then disagreeing with the capacity design philosophy Figs. (7-10), Figs. (14and 15). The application of a monotonic increasing load in correspondence to the roof storey led to the concentration of deformation/displacement at the 4th-5th levels, well represented looking at the inter-storey drift distributions obtained (Fig. 16). The global ductile behaviour imposed by Eurocode 8 is then not achieved. This situation depends, from one side, on the structural building typology and, on the other side, on the analysis method. Being the shelves connected only at the roof and independent in the bottom and intermediate portions, the representation of the behaviour by the monitoring of a single point is not strictly meaningful. To study with more accuracy the problem, nonlinear dynamic analyses with representative accelerograms shall be developed.

Results highlight then the need to develop specific design rules for ARSW, since the traditional approach proposed by Eurocodes do not allow to fully exploit the structural performance of such structures. At the same time, the necessity of improving analysis techniques to better understand and exploit the behaviour of ARSW becomes evident. The present manuscript constitutes the base for further investigations and analyses, actually ongoing in the framework of the European research project “STEELWAR: Advanced structural solutions for automated STEEL rack supported WARehouses”, funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS), started in 2017 and that will end in July, 2021.

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