Construction Of Kerosine Cooking Stove

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Construction Of Kerosine Cooking Stove


Abstract


The purpose of the construction is aimed at producing heat energy for commercial use by turning liquid fuel (kerosene). The construction was successful by appropriate selection of engineering material favourably mild steel (blacksheet) and steel iron for special parts.

The technological properties passed by the chosen mild steel are; machinability, weldability, durability, and formability. Mechanize properties include malleability, duetility, static strength and high tensile strength .

The sequence of operation followed by the construction are; Literature review, material selection-fabrication evaluation and possible redesign and modification. The fabrication processes of the metallic material includes the making out, cutting bending hammering, joining, welding, grazing, smothering and finally printing.

A consideration of the operational environment which the store will function was taken into account and a material selection which has the ability of being prevented by coating from corrosion โ€“mild steel was chosen.

After the construction, the operational efficiency was tested and is 92% effective that is, produces bluish flame which indicates that the aim of the construction was achieved.

The costing, which is the overriding factors, was tabulated headed under material costing labour costing and overhead costing.

Mode of operation of the store and the precautionary measure was also included in order to give the store a maximum service life.


Chapter One


Introduction

Effective Construction and the utilization of engineering materials lies on the appropriate selection of materials. Materials properties very from one engineering material to another, and is based on these properties that materials are selected for a particular construction. Many factors are to be considered if selection of materials will be affected; these facture.

Include;

A. The mechanical properties such as

  1. Strength โ€“ tensile strength
  2. Stiffness โ€“ elastic modulus
  3. Toughness โ€“ fracture resistance
  4. Hardness โ€“ wear resistance
  5. Fatique resistance
  6. Creep resistance

B. The availability of the material

C. The workability of the material โ€“ machinability weldability, fabrication, forging.

D. The cost of the material which includes;

  1. Cost pf Installation;
  2. Cost of maintenance;
  3. Cost of fabrication;
  4. Cost of replacement

E. The stability of the material.

In chemical process such as the one required in kerosene cooking, stove- the mixture of fuel (kerosene) with air, the overriding factor in the selection of stove materials is the ability of the selected materials to resist corrosion.

Engineering materials Includes metals,

Plastics (polymer) and ceramics. For the purpose of our basic concern โ€“ construction of stove, we will be limited or streamlined to metals alone.

After considering the various material properties and its associated factors, the following are selectively considered; low carbon steel, medium carbon steel, high carbon steel, galvanized steel, stainless steel and metallic rod.

The use of kerosene store at homes and industries a source of heat and for heating substances has played a vital role in the fulfillment of manโ€™s existence; that is had performed specific functions.

Until the recent development of technology which lead to the refining of crude oil into various fraction โ€“ kerosene, the use of firewood, coal and other fossile fuels materials has been the only source of cooking or heat energy in Nigeria.

The design and construction of cooking stove is made in such a way that it provides the four basic elements of combustion without which purpose for construction cannot be maximized.

In order to provide for the basic element of combustion, the system is built to contain many components the most important being the burner.

Kerosene serves as the main component of aviation fuel for jet engines. In many developing countries, kerosene is the next to fire wood in domestic application.


Chapter Five


5.1 Discussion

Kerosene cooking stove has been one of the simples and affordable equipment used in the production of heat energy from liquid fuel, especially for domestic usage. Due to its portability, durability and affordability and its less advantageous nature it has become the most widely used cooking equipment for domestic and commercial purposes.

The various components that make up the kerosene cooking stove are: the jack controller, oil tank, the inner and second burner, the body, the top cover, the jack, kerosene gauge and the wick plate. Every component listed above plays an important role in the functionability of the stock. They are all considered in the construction.

Considering the various engineering ,materials that could in the construction of the stove, three materials were selected whose properties were considered to the basic work or construction. That is, materials with suitable static strength, corrosion resistance, service environment, vividly considered. Similarly, technological properties of engineering materials. This includes durability weldability and workability.

The overriding factor generally considered is the economic cost and the availability of the said material.

Low carbon steel โ€“ mild carbon steel or commonly known as the black sheet steel with gauge 22cm was considered and used in the construction of the burners, the oil tank and the top cover of the stove. The 22 gauge black mild steel sheet used for the burner were suitable in that it has the ability of withstanding the temperature of the flame produced and can further resist corrosion due to unburnt carbon particles and other unsuitable environment.

The outer and the inner chimney were also made by 22 gauge number mild steel. It is perforated by means of dual punch in a diagonal configuration to give the desired air feed holes. The fibrous wick was selected to give sufficient wick feeding of the fuel to sustain the flames.

The kerosene cooking stove makes use of the simple capillary action through the wick to feed the fuel into the system.

To ensure rigidity, the top cover and the oil was welded with metal steel. Metal iron was used to hold the oil tank and to provide support to the stove.

The strength of the stand support or pot carrier was taken into consideration so as to have enough strength to carry the food of substance put on it.

After the assembling of the various constituent, the body of the stove was painted with black paint. This application ensures the resistance of corrosion. The jack and the top cover was also painted with the black heat. It is metal coating a scientific method of preventing corrosion effect on the constructional materials and to increase the service life of the cooking stove.


5.2 Conclusion

The energy stored as chemical energy is liquid fuels like kerosene, gasoline etc can be harnessed in a form which can be easily utilized in our domestic homes: and commercial purposes, for cooking, laboratories, industries for cooking of samples and in chemical process industries, for stern generation processes. This energy is converted into head energy by means of equipment known as store. The equipment incorporate the burner which is an equipment used to produce flame.

The stove can be constructed from simple engineering materials like mild steel with different gauge numbers made to combust kerosene effectively to produce heat. The burner assist in the energy needed for domestic and other process application.

Conclusively, the stove is an equipment constructed to utilize the energy stored in chemical form. In kerosene to provide heat energy needed for a lot of applications, especially in the domestic homes for cooking of raw foodstuff and for commercial use for preparing eba, akara, etc.


5.3 Recommendation

Specifications are made for the type of kerosene that should be used in the stove. Examples, a highly paraioic oil is recommended, since aromatics and naphthathenes gives a smoky flame.

To avoid atmospheric pollution, the kerosene is low in sulphur content is also recommended. A minimum flesh point of 1000f (38 0 c) is desired to reduce explosion hazard and for satisfactory wick feeding the viscosity, the oil should not be greater than two centipose (viscosity).

Recommendation is also made for low content of non-volatile components. The flash point and fire point of the fuel is recommended for fire and safety regulations. During ignition as the mixture, recommendation is made to the use matches only.

Donโ€™t use electric spark. The employment of choke to the burners is generally regarded as an unsafe practice. The use of kerosene cooking stove is highly recommended as it make use of direct burners, which make use of the direct burners, which maintains the flame stability of a point. Finally in order to ensure smooth operation, always keep the stove clean by cleaning off all unburnt substances, dirt from the burner and the surface plate, avoid also atmospheric corrosion by keeping the stove reasonably out of reach corrosion causing agents like air moisture and chemicals careful preservation and maintenance is always recommended.


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