Construction Of Two Face Gas Burner

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME

Construction Of Two Face Gas Burner


Abstract


This project deals with the construction and fabrication of a two face gas burner. The gas components consists of the following major components; burner, injector opening, mixing tube, burner support, etc. The gas stove was constructed from medium carbon steel material. The choice of the selected material has to do with cost, and local availability. The distance between the cooking pot and the stove burner is 40mm, and the gap between each of the port is 5 mm. Mixing tube lengths of 80mm, tube inner diameter of 15mm, and gap diameter of 2.5mm between each ports were adopted in this design. The results obtained show that an average efficiency, minimal efficiency, optimal efficiency of 56.894 %, 46.02 %, and 63.87 % respectively were obtained. Also, an average mass of water of 3.5 kg, an average evaporated mass of water of 0.0208 kg, and an average mass of fuel of 0.0551 kg were obtained. With this designed and adoption of two face biogas fuel stove as means of cooking, the usage of wood and fossil fuel will be reduce, thus preventing the liberation of hazardous gases to our eco-system and increases cooking speed.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Fuel burning devices are devices that produce heat (thermal energy), derived from burning fuel and required for technological processes especially in the industry [Kittle, 2000]. There are so many types of burners with different fuel types. Examples of such fuel are the biodiesel, ethanol, vegetable oil etc. Burning devices that make use of this fuel are classified as the oil burners, liquid fuel burners, and the combined gas liquid fuel burners. Apart from its classification by the type of fuel used, a burner can also be designed based on factors like the combustion chamber geometry, type of oxidizer and also heat transfer requirements which include flame temperature and heat distribution etc. Typical examples of burners which are developed based on the type of oxidizer are the oxy-fuel burner and air fuel burner [Baukal, 2014].

Various works relating to the construction and testing of burners were studied, they include: Development of a high velocity burner for furnace operation. The main components of this burning device are the burner nozzle, mixing tube, downstream section and a cross-connected regulator for air fuel ratio control. It employs forced draft in mixing the fuel and air [Ighodalo, 2010]. Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a Biogas Burner, the work was geared towards modification and improvement of the burner and its efficiency [Obada, 2018]. Porous Radiant Burners which make use of liquid petroleum gas were also developed and tested for cooking applications [Mishra et al., 2013]. Other authors studied the Design and Construction of Atmospheric Gas Burners where they dwelt most on the theory of flow of gas through different types of orifice [Walter, 2017].

In University of Maiduguri’s Faculty of Arts, burners of different types have been constructed for use in the kiln for firing or drying of things such as the bricks. A typical example is a burner that uses kerosene only as its fuel. The burner is made up of the nozzle, manual pump, hose and the fuel tank. The pressure required for ignition is supplied by the manual pump which is fixed at a small opening on the fuel tank. Kerosene then passes through the nozzle as it comes in contact with heat supplied by the rings in the kiln. This type of burner is classified as a liquid fuel burner.

Similarly, a burner that uses only used or waste engine oil has its fuel tank located at a certain height and uses electricity which powers the electric motor and helps rotate the blower which supplies the air required for combustion as the used engine oil flows through the burner. Despite the presence of the few types of burner, they are not constructed for carrying out foundry applications. Also, considering the availability of used engine oil, there stems the need to construct an admixture burner for the purpose of carrying out foundry operations.

This paper therefore presents the result of the design, construction and test of a two-faced gas burner for users as an alternative to electric burners. The construction of a two-face gas burner will go a long way in achieving portability of gas burners and also enable asynchronous usage as two objects can be placed on the burner at the same time. It is a starting point of actualizing a functional technology in the country. Irrespective of the fact that there are several breads of gas burners in the market, especially the ones imported, we deemed it necessary to work further on it as a way of modifying the brand with cast not left out in such modification.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In an effort to develop an economical means of cooking, different people and institutions have come up with different designs and innovations of cooking gadgets. Nevertheless, each design comes up with its peculiar limitation especially with reference to the environment in which it is being used. A look at the different types of burners available helped us to understand the importance of this particular work. Many burners currently in the market are single faced. With this, cooking slows down since one thing must be cooked before the other is started. This causes wastage of time and resources

Although there are already developed two face burners in the market, most of them do not utilize the principle of minimal gas combustion. Since they are two faced, they waste more fuel than required. This study tends to curb the current problem by designing a two face gas burner capable of asynchronous usage, generate minimal heat and minimize fuel usage.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to construct a two face gas burner. To achieve the stated aim, the following specific objectives were laid out:

  1. Construct a burner that does not pose health risk to the user and is environment friendly, i.e. applies complete combustion of gas.
  2. The burner should be safe, simple and easy to operate and maintain
  3. The burner should be able to produce enough useful heat with minimum energy loss.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This work will be of great importance to those in cooking industry as it will help improve combustion process. Specifically,

  1. It would fasten the cooking process as the two face burners can be used alongside each other.
  2. It can be used for commercial purposes (restaurants and Hotels) since the gas cylinder is designed to contain large quantity of kerosene which can burn for a longer period of time.
  3. It does not form soot on the utensil used on it since the atomization and vaporization of the gas helps it to burn properly in the presence of oxygen.

1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study

This paper presents the redesign of a two face burner that uses High Static Gas burner (HSG) product to mix the gas and air mixture before it is ignited. This burner operates in firing range of 60,000-400,000 Btu/hr. The objective of redesigning the burner is to improve the overall performance of the burner. This design project deals with the port of a powered gas burner utilizing both natural and propane gases. The port function in a powered gas burner is to initiate the fuel gas into an air stream. The redesigned burner port increases combustion efficiency by 3% compared to the original burner. This new burner operates within a wider range of excess air of 5% on both the lean and rich side while still igniting reliably and keeping the CO levels under 400 ppm. The redesigned burner design meets all the criteria of the American National Standards Institute ANSI Z21.17 standard for domestic gas conversion burners. The redesigned burner was machined out of 304 stainless steel which makes the burner head have corrosion resistant properties this includes using corrosion resistant fasteners.


1.6 Definition of Terms

Gas Cylinder:

A gas cylinder is a pressure vessel for storage and containment of gases at above atmospheric pressure

Gas Burner:

A nozzle or jet through which combustible gas is released and then ignited, e.g. as part of a cooker or hob

Temperature:

The degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object, especially as expressed according to a comparative scale and shown by a thermometer or perceived by touch.


Chapter Five


Summary and Conclusion

5.1 Summary

An admixture burner using kerosene with used engine has been found to replace the conventional fuel in the workshop thereby reducing the cost of operation in the foundry operation. The designed burner has been made simple so that it could be understood and operated even by unskilled persons. Most of the materials used for the construction are locally available and affordable making the burning device easy to produce and maintain. The design construction and testing of the admixture burner can be improved by making provision for a better process of purifying the fuel


5.2 Conclusion

The growing demand for wood and fossil fuels and their limited availability and depreciation necessitated the search for their replacement for these fuels. Biogas fuel is relatively clean, nontoxic, and a nonpoisonous gas. It can be used for cooking, lighting, or to power combustion engine for motive power. In cooking with biogas fuel, a biogas fuel stove is required. In this research work, biogas fuel stove was successfully designed and fabricated. Performance evaluation was carried out on the stove. An average efficiency, minimal efficiency, optimal efficiency of 56.894%, 46.02%, and 63.87% were obtained. Besides, an average mass of water of 3.5kg, an average evaporated mass of water of 0.0208kg, and an average mass of fuel of 0.0551kg were obtained. No undue sound was recorded before, during, and after the used of the stove. Thus, the performance of the stove was satisfactory since the efficiency recorded was
higher than the reported efficiencies by other researchers (Chandra, 1991; Kurchania et al., 2010). Besides, the designed and fabricated biogas fuel stove can be used to solve the problem of continuous dependency on wood and fossil fuels for cooking.


Construction Of Two Face Gas Burner


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