Construction Of Cellophane Sealing Machine

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Construction Of Cellophane Sealing Machine


Abstract


The construction of the callophane sealing machine was carried out. The project started with an encompassing review of the various methods of heat sealing film packages. The machine can be used in sealing both low, medium and high-density cellophane. The product has a heating element, which converts electrical energy to heat energy, which converts electrical energy to heat energy, which is utilized in the sealing of the cellophane. It has an efficiency of about 90% with a reasonable degree of accuracy.

The major components of the machine included 24 – 30 volts transformer, heating element, electrical cables, plywood, tape (paper, Teflon, black) lever machine, seconds time, micro – switch and on/off indication bulb.

The machine was relatively cheap and compares favourably with imported types of the same capacity. The total cost of production amounted to the sum of ten thousand, one hundred naira only (N10,100.00).


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Application Of Polyethene (Cellophane)
  • 1.2 Types Of Sealing Machines
  • 1.3 Other Uses Of Cellophane

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature Review
  • 2.1 Historical Development Of Cellophanes
  • 2.2 Production Of Cellophane Materials
  • 2.3 Physical Properties Of Polyolefins
  • 2.4 Sealing Of Ilms
  • 2.5 The Structural Formular Of Lope

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Material Selection
  • 3.1 General Properties Of Engineering Materials
  • 3.2 Metals And Its Properties
  • 3.3 Ferrous Metals
  • 3.4 Properties Of Steel
  • 3.5 Non Ferrous Metals
  • 3.6 Glass And Its Properties
  • 3.7 Wood And Its Properties
  • 3.8 Types Of Wood
  • 3.9 Material Of Construction For Project
  • 3.10 Analysis Of Other Materials Used In Construction

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Engineering Method
  • 4.1 Engineering Drawing
  • 4.2 Collection Of Materials
  • 4.3 Dimensioning And Marking Out
  • 4.4 Cutting And Welding
  • 4.5 Filing Of Edges
  • 4.6 Building Of The Box
  • 4.7 Placing Of Furmica
  • 4.8 Transformer Construction
  • 4.9 Electrical Connection

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Discussion

Chapter Six

  • 6.0 Conclusion

Chapter Seven

  • Recommendation
  • Appendix
  • References
  • Cost Estimation

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Cellophane sealing machine is basically used for cellophane and nylon materials sealing. It is a machine that uses the principle of light, heating materials or element to seal two impressed surfaces or even more impressed surface depending on the nylon usage and application.

The packaging phenomenon was previously done by the use of paper bags but as time went on, this method changed to cellophane packaging system and till date, it has been growing. This cellophane can be obtained by the process of polymerization of organic compounds to form polyethene.

With the invention or introduction of technology, different types of packaging systems have been deviced, of which the most highly used is the cellophane packaging and sealing. Although, the use of time in packaging is still in use. Cellophane packaging excels since it can be easily obtained, fabricated, as well as store materials of different shapes and sizes.

The properties of poly ethane that made it to be highly useful in all aspects of packaging are inertness, high resistance of acid attack, water, base, organic chemicals, low coefficient etc polyehtene is used in packaging goods like ice cream, treated water, beverages, and biscuits, pharmerceutical products and some other fungicides like cocoabre sandus, copper sulphate (blue stone), ridomil plus etc.


1.1 Application of Polyethenes (Cellophane)

Cellophane is used for different forms of packaging which include:

  1. Produces wrapping; Low density polyethene is widely used in the packaging of fresh horticultural produce. The touch and well sealed films are required for the packaging of these items.
  2. Frozon food packaging; The toughness of low density polyethene at low temperature coupled with the fact that it can be formed into bags on a film. Seal basis has led to its use, in frozen food packaging. These include frozen soft fruits, frozen milks, water etc.
  3. General food pa ckaging; The interness of low density polyethene has led to its used for packaging of foods like bread, ice cream, biscuits, margarine, storage of sugar etc because it will not react with the food item.
  4. Textile packaging; The textile industries make use of low density polyethene bags to package the textile product after production so as to prevent it from being damped.
  5. Packaging of pharmaceutical products; The main use of high density polyethene is the strip or blister packaging of pharmaceutical capsules and tablets, especially in cases of hydroscopic products, owing to the high water penetration resistance of polyethenes.
  6. High density polyethene are equally used in the packaging of aerospace hardwares and valves.
  7. Low density polyethene film is used in the field of heavy duty sacks, its main advantage being that the sacks could be stored in the open air and high resistances to tear propagation and ensures visibility to the contents

1.2 Types of Sealing Machine

1. Cellophane sealing machine:

The cellophane sealing machines are used for polyethene and other associated materials.

2. Fibre bag sealing machine:

This type seals products that are usually contained in fibre salts.

3. Can sealing machine:

This is mostly used in the metallurgical industries for sealing metal can etc.

4. Paper sealing machine:

Products that are packaged in bags are usually sealed using the vacuum sealing machine type.


1.3 Other Uses of Cellophane Are

  1. As a sealant; Cellophane is used in the sealing of plastic contains.
  2. In manufacturing of rain coats: Cellophane (polyethane) with high densities are used in the manufacturing of rain coats.
  3. They are used as additives to other products.
  4. In lamination; Because many current packaging application requires combination of properties not available in any single packaging film, two or more different films, are often laminated to obtain the desired properties. An extremely wide range of properties can be achieved in various combination of cellophane with polyethene aluminum foil, rubber, hydrochloride film, wax and pa per.
  5. Printing; A printed design or message may be applied to gravure, flexographic or letter press printing, and several colours may be applied consecutive to cellophane.
  6. Hot – melt coating; One important example is its use in the direct wrap, used on some varieties of processed cheese.

In our economy today, there is ever increasing demand for cellophanes and as such, it is very necessary to construct a cellophane sealing machine to meet the needs of the people. The project in guestion is aimed at providing this machine at a relatively cheap cost from locally gathered materials, thus, reducing the cost of production of cellophane sealing machine as well as to enhance the effective utilization of cellophane products.


Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion

The portable cellophane sealer is found to be highly efficient after its modification. The machine has a metal frame and wood. It is desirable that these components should be protected from damage due to external stress and environmental conditions.

Consequently, the metal frame was coated with paint to avoid rusting. Also, the wood was covered with furmica to avoid damage. The density of cellophane material ranges from high, medium and low density types each of these class of cellophane has a peculiar product or process that it is utilized.

The filament is a good conductor of heat and electricity and can therefore easily convert electrical energy to heat energy. This makes it possible for the filament is heated, it expanses and if it is continuously used to seed cellophanes, distortions is likely to occur on the product. To avoid this, the bolts used for holding the filament were inclined away from the filament. Also, a spring was attached to the bolts at the ends of the filament to increase tension and give a straight cutting ad sealing.

There exists various cellophane cutting and sealing methods. They include mechanical sealing, high frequency heating, ultrasonic sealing, heat sealing, use of adhesives etc.

The choice of a particular method depends on a number of factors including the sealing characteristics required, the nature of the film to be sealed, production speed and the cost effectiveness of the materials of construction and power sources. The effectiveness of a sealed cellophane can be ascertained by inflating with water or air and then exerting pressure on the bag, any leakage will be manifested by escape of air or water from the bag.

The heat sealing method is preferred to other sealing techniques mentioned above due to some uncompromisable advantages which includes: fast production speed, effective and less expensive energy source ie electrical energy, the ease of fabrication, less ambiguity in its use and low cost of the materials of construction. Heat sealing method can be in the form of heated wheels for band seals, high frequency heat sealing, flame sealing hot wire sealing, etc.

The one adopted for this project is the hot wire sealing due to its ability and ease to cut and seal effectively and simultaneously.

The ability of the cellophane sealing and cutting machine to cut and seal cellophane of different densities depends on the duration of time for the low and medium cellophane, shorter time is required while for high density cellophane, longer time is needed to cut and seal and material.

The Capacity of the Machine

The portable cellophane sealing machine ahs a capacity of 720 – 1200 seal bag per hour.

In an average of 8 working hours per day it has the capacity of 9600 sealed bags ie 1 day = 8 x 1200 = 9600 sealed bags. That is to say, it can seal at every 3 seconds and cut at 5 seconds. So there is 5 working days of the week, the portable machine is capable of sealing or producing up to 48,000 sealed bags is 5 x 9600 = 48,000.

However, the machine can also work advancely for 24 – 48 hours depending on the need in production but for the maintenance purpose of the machine, it is reduced to eight working hours.

Therefore, the sizes and types of the bags being machined are as follows:

  1. High density Santana for pure water, for packaging of salts (-18-22 micro).
  2. Local Santana type (-8-9 micro)
  3. Plan white for bread (-8-10 micro)

It was observed that when the machine is allowed to do work for about 60 minutes and more, the element will be over-headed. When this happens, the tape form will bur up. This is resolved by incorporating an automatic switch; such that when the box is closed, the circuits will be completed and the sealing process would be done and if the box is opened again the circuit will be disconnected and put off.


Chapter Six


6.0 Conclusion

From the discussion, it is vital to conclude that engineering materials like mild steel, heating elements, transformer, plywood, furmica, foam second timer, switch and others can be successfully assembled into a fine and portable cellophane sealing available and relatively cheap.

The heat sealing method used is preferable to other sealing methods because of its cheapness, less prone to fire hazards or over loading/over heating and its good sealing quality. The mechanism of operation was also simple.


Chapter Seven


7.0 Recommendation

The locally manufactured cellophane sealing ma chine is highly recommended. This is so due to a number of observations noted. To start with, the low cost of fabrication and operation is one factor. T he low power consumption (electrical energy) by the machine. The simplicity of its mode of operation together with its portability are obvious advantages.

Judging from these factors, the relative cheapness of machine parts is certain. Its therefore highly recommended over importing foreign one with complicated mode of operation. These imported ones also portray expensive requirement and high cost of fabrication. They also require higher consumption of electrical energy with complex component parts.

To recommend maximum durability and effective performance of the machine, instructions should be adhered to at all times. They include

  1. Temperature higher than 3000C has to be avoided when using cellophane sealing machine. This is because excessive temperature causes cellophane degradation.
  2. The electrical connections have to be checked before and after work, hence to know it there is leakage of circuit.
  3. The spring which is attached to element should be checked before and after use, but should be changed or replaced when damaged.
  4. Continuous hold on the pedal in the depressed position for a long time is not advisable
  5. The machine should be cleared after use hence by removing all sealing materials.4

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