Constraints Of Effective Teaching And Learning Of Biology

Biology Education Project Material

Constraints Of Effective Teaching And Learning Of Biology


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess the contraints of effective teaching and learning of biology in senior secondary school using some selected senior secondary school in Nkwere Local Government Areas of Imo State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out whether the lack of conducive and well equipped school environment affect the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools, find out whether negative attitude of students towards learning biology affects the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools, find out whether unavailability of qualified teachers, and teachers lack of competencies affects the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools, find out whether complex scientific language used in teaching biology affects the teaching and learning of the subject in Nigerian Secondary schools, and find out whether lack of modern laboratory apparatus, and inconsistency in government policies affect the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of biology teachers and students in some selected senior secondary schools in Nkwere Local Government Areas of Imo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that negative attitude of students towards learning biology affect the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools. The result of the findings reveals that lack of modern laboratory apparatus, and inconsistency in government policies affect the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers should be encouraged to go for workshop training in their area of specialization so that they can have knowledge of current ideas and innovations that have taken place in the educational field. Especially in their area of specialization. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The term science has to do with nature; it is derived from the Latin word scientia, which means knowledge. It is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of potable expectations and production about the universe. It can be equally defined as the field of the study which tries to describe and understand the nature of the universe in whole or in part. Science to all human is the activities involving organized knowledge of phenomena. This system uses observation and experiment to describe and explain natural phenomena. Science is said to be a great enterprise which nations depend on in order to advance technologically. Science is therefore, is much emphasis in receiving in education because of its significance and relevance to life and society.

Science is the bedrock on which modern day technological breakthrough is hinged. Different authors according to their own understanding have defined Science. Igwe (2003) defined science as a systematic study of the nature of the behaviour of the material and physical universe through observation, experimentation, measurement and recording. In addition, Esu (2004) defined science as a systematic, precise, objective way to study the natural world. Science is often an exciting and satisfying enterprise that requires creativity, skill and insight based on this Fape (2007) defined science as rationally structured knowledge about nature, which embraces systematic methods of positive attitudes for its acquisition, teaching, learning and application.

The major goal of science education is to develop scientifically literate individuals that are concerned with high competence for rational thoughts and actions. The objectives of science education in this country according to Maduekwe (2006) include the need to prepare students to observe and explore the environment, explain simple natural phenomena, develop scientific attitudes including curiosity, critical reflection and objectivity, apply the skills and knowledge gained through science to solve everyday problems in the environment, develop self-confidence and self-reliance through problem solving activities in science.

In recent times, countries all over the world, especially the developing ones like Nigeria, are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, since the world is turning Scientific and all proper functioning of lives depend greatly on Science. According to Ogunleye (2006), Science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe. Without the application of science, it would have been difficult for man to explore the other planets of the universe. Science comprises the basic disciplines such as Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology.

Biology is one of the science subjects that senior secondary school students offer at the senior levels in the Nigerian secondary schools, (FRN, 2004). Biology is a very important science subject and a requirement for further learning of a number of science-related professional courses like medicine, agriculture, pharmacy, etc. In contemporary Nigeria, greater emphasis is placed on science and technological development. As a result, students are being encouraged to take up science-related subjects. Today, Biology pervades literally every field of human endeavour, and plays a fundamental role in educational advancement. This is seen in all the technological advancement in the world today, which is because of scientific investigations. However, the issue remains that in most secondary schools in Nigeria, there is high rate of failure in the subject.

Biology as a branch of science and the prerequisite subject for many fields of learning contributes immensely to the technological growth of the nation, which includes medicine, forestry, agriculture, biotechnology and nursing. Biology is said to be the study of natural phenomena and environment which result from curiosity of man, Nlewan (2005). Biology in all is the knowledge of living things that has come to us in the past. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species.

Biology education is the act of teaching and learning in order to inculcate or transfer the knowledge the knowledge of biology to students (Okeny 2012). Educating people in science especially in biology has been widely acknowledged as a way of promoting economic development, eliminating poverty and introducing social welfare (Nwagbo, 2005).

Development is the act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining a situation or condition of a particular thing Tunde (2011). To develop biology education in Nigeria, the government should improve the teaching and learning of biology, by providing adequate laboratory/teaching materials, qualified biology teachers, good biology classroom environment, use of good teaching methods by the biology teacher, a proper curriculum standard for teaching biology, and provision of funds to the schools Ameh (2009).

Biology is the most commonly chosen science subject of most secondary school students are confirmed by West African Examination Council (WAEC) record According to Okeke (2000).

Students who did well in biology could have prospect in becoming; Doctors, nurses, pharmacist, dentist, biology teachers, medical technologist, food technologist, genetic engineers, microbiologists, biochemists, and other science subjects. Biology has its origin from Europe but today all the nations of the world accord priority attention to science and technology in development efforts. Effective teaching of biology is a process by which a biology teacher adopts all the possible methods use in teaching in classroom to make sure that students understand biology and be able to respond positively during assessment or produce good result. Teaching effectiveness is exhibited in teaching method, classroom management, the materials as well as the way students are been handled, a good teacher always bear in mind the individual differences of the students while presenting the lessons and frequenting check the students understanding of his or her points to make sure that they are understanding the lesson.


1.2 Statement of Problems

Regrettably many students in secondary schools who offer biology as a subject perform poorly in the subject. Greater percentage of this failure comes from teachers. Omode (2012) blames these problems on teachers, his sensitivity to nature of biology when planning institutional activities from the studies, it therefore becomes imperative to identify those factors that advancelly affect the teaching and learning of biology education as well as to identify possible solution/recommendations to tackle the identified challenges. This gap therefore requires a research attention in relation to overcoming the alleged difficulties besetting the effective teaching of biology in secondary schools. Biology is said to be the core science subjects, which is supposed to be the most interesting science subject to students in senior secondary schools. It has been discovered that the effective teaching and learning of biology have been very important, but the rate in which students fail biology in result times shows that effective learning of biology has not been attained, By this Aganga (2000), observed that many secondary schools, especially public schools have insufficient competent teachers as well as biological equipment’s in their different schools. Therefore there is need to answer certain questions reinforce their effectiveness in teaching. Despite the importance of biology, it could be observed that number of students who fails biology is high; it is the result of the students behavior such as non-challant attitude in the class, some student are very stubborn. In most of this secondary schools teachers which are found there are mainly not qualified in teaching profession but because the word “corruption” everyone wants his or her own person to be there, weather qualified or not all they care about is money not future.

Another problems which is likely seen as a challenge which befalls the effective teaching of biology, is the poor method of teaching, Oguihe (2010) finds out that most teachers doesn’t possess the skills in teaching, i.e. They don’t know the methods which they could use in teaching, where some walk in to the classroom without set inducing the students but reading the note alone without explanation or breaking it down. This could likely bring poor performance of biology students in secondary schools, and this is attributed to social and institutional based factor.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess the constraints of teaching and learning of biology.

The study will be guided by the following specific research objectives;

  1. Find out whether the lack of conducive and well equipped school environment affect the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  2. Find out whether negative attitude of students towards learning biology affects the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  3. Find out whether unavailability of qualified teachers, and teachers lack of competencies affects the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  4. Find out whether complex scientific language used in teaching biology affects the teaching and learning of the subject in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  5. Find out whether lack of modern laboratory apparatus, and inconsistency in government policies affect the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools.

1.4 Research Question

  1. Does lack of conducive and well equipped school environment affect the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools?
  2. Does negative attitude of students towards learning biology affect the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools?
  3. Does unavailability of qualified teachers, and teachers lack of competencies affect the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools?
  4. Does complex scientific language used in teaching biology affect the teaching and learning of the subject in Nigerian Secondary schools?
  5. Does lack of modern laboratory apparatus, and inconsistency in government policies affect the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The problems identified has no significant effect on the teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools.
  • Ha: The problems identified has a significant effect on the teaching and learning bof biology in secondary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study gives various insights into the challenges of teaching biology education in senior secondary schools in NKWERE Local Government Areas in Imo State. These highlighted challenges will enable stakeholders in the education sector to take adequate measures in tackling these challenges, and make learning of biology education a lot easier for both teachers and students in senior secondary school levels.

This study will be useful to classroom teachers, curriculum planners, students, researchers and parents. For teachers they will be better informed on how to help and guide their students on better way of producing improvised materials with local resources where standardized materials are unavailable or inadequate. The teachers can also engage students to do some of the illustrations during biology instructions.

This study will help to develop problem solving skill in students and will also help student to be more resourceful during lessons. The study could be beneficial to curriculum planners who would design functional curriculum by taking into considerations students- teachers improvised instructional materials.

The results of the study could provide information to researchers interested in working on student-teachers generated improvised materials in other subject areas. This may help them to get more information on the efficacy of improvisation, especially researchers in the area of science and technology. Parents will be better informed on how to encourage and help their wards to produce improvised materials. This may be in form of sourcing local materials and providing fund for those that cannot be found in their environment.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is delimited to the factors affecting the teaching and learning of biology in senior secondary school in NKWERE Local Government Areas in Imo State. The study investigated instructional-related, time-related and teacher-related challenges. The respondents for this study will comprises both biology teachers and students in some selected secondary schools in the study area.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of the Terms

1. Teaching:

Teaching can be defined as engagement with learners to enable their understanding and application of knowledge, concepts and processes. It includes design, content selection, delivery, assessment and reflection.

2. Learning:

Learning is the process of acquiring new, or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.

3. Facilities:

These refers to as materials or equipment available in the laboratory for practical e.g microscope, Bursen Burner, lance, Skeleton aquarium.

4. Laboratory:

This is an area equipped with scientific apparatus and equipment for experimentation.

5. Biology:

Is a branch of Science that deal with the study of life. It is the scientific study of living organism (plant and animals).

6. Poor Performance:

Performances that fall below standard or expectation. It indicates that little learning has taken place.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the assessment of the constraints of effective teaching and learning of biology in senior secondary school using some selected senior secondary school in Nkwere Local Government Areas of Imo State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the assessment of constraints of teaching and learning of biology in senior secondary school using some selected senior secondary school in Nkwere Local Government Areas of Imo State as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to find out whether the lack of conducive and well equipped school environment affect the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools, find out whether negative attitude of students towards learning biology affects the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools, find out whether unavailability of qualified teachers, and teachers lack of competencies affects the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools, find out whether complex scientific language used in teaching and learning biology affects the teaching of the subject in Nigerian Secondary schools, and find out whether lack of modern laboratory apparatus, and inconsistency in government policies affect the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are biology teachers and students in some selected senior secondary schools in Nkwere Local Government Areas of Imo State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The lack of conducive and well equipped school environment affects the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  2. The negative attitude of students towards learning biology affects the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  3. The unavailability of qualified teachers, and teachers lack of competencies affects the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  4. The complex scientific language used in teaching biology affects the teaching and learning of the subject in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  5. The lack of modern laboratory apparatus, and inconsistency in government policies affects the teaching and learning of biology in Nigerian Secondary schools.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Teachers should be encouraged to go for workshop training in their area of specialization so that they can have knowledge of current ideas and innovations that have taken place in the educational field. Especially in their area of specialization.
  2. Teachers teaching biology in the secondary schools should be qualified/professional teachers who specialize in chemistry education.
  3. When biology teachers are faced with unfamiliar content areas, inability to meaningfully interpret the performance objectives, inability to organize activities for pupils and inability to organize activities for pupils and inability to organize activities for pupils and inability identifying sources of teaching aids, they should do a lot of reading to become familiar with the content areas or seek the assistance of more experienced teachers.
  4. When biology teachers are faced with the problem of non-availability of materials/equipment for practical purposes, they should improvise.
  5. To avoid rushing students to finish the biology science of work, teachers should be dedicated to their work and by so doing they can plan their lessons thoroughly and start on time.

How To Get The Complete Material For Constraints Of Effective Teaching And Learning Of Biology


Project Material Download


The complete material will be sent to your email address after payment
( Quick & Simple)

FOR CLIENTS IN NIGERIA:
CLICK HERE to make purchase (₦3,000)

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
CLICK HERE to make purchase ($15)

  Contact Our Help Desk


⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “Constraints Of Effective Teaching And Learning Of Biology” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Constraints Of Effective Teaching And Learning Of Biology” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.