Consequences Of Premarital Sexual Activities Among Secondary School Students In Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State

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Consequences Of Premarital Sexual Activities Among Secondary School Students In Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State


Abstract


The study is focused on the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State.

A total of 200 respondents were randomly selected from Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State. The instrument used was a questionnaire titled. Consequences of Premarital Sexual Activities Questionnaire (CPSAQ) which was developed by the researcher. It consists of two sections: (A and B). section A consisted of items that gave the personal data of respondents, while B contained items on the consequences of premarital sexual activities.
The results of the study indicated that the consequences of premarital sexual activities mostly includes dropout as a result of teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortion single parenting, early marriage, increase in the rate of contraceptive drug and abandoning of one’s responsibility was considered the least.

Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that counsellors should be involved in enlightenment programme to sensitize Nigerian adolescents towards sexual behaviours strict discipline in the home should be encouraged. Sex education should be included into the guidance and counselling.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables

Chapter One

Introduction

  • Background to the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Research Questions
  • Research Hypothesis
  • Purpose of Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Operational Definition of Terms
  • Scope of the Study

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

  • Introduction
  • Concept of Premarital Sex
  • Causes of Premarital Sexual Activities among Students
  • Lack of Sexual Educative Material
  • Prevalence of Premarital Sex
  • Adolescents Sexual Development
  • Adolescent Sexual Behaviour
  • Sexual Activity/Sexual Relationship
  • Percentage of Adolescents who reported having Premarital Sex by 19 Years
  • Adolescent Pregnancy
  • Effects of Premarital Sex
  • Solutions to Premarital Sex
  • Summary of the Review of Related Literature

Chapter Three

Methodology

  • Introduction
  • Research Design
  • Sample and Sampling Technique
  • Instrumentation
  • Validity of the Instrument
  • Reliability of the Instrument
  • Administration of the Instrument
  • Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Results

  • Introduction
  • Descriptive Analysis
  • Hypothesis Testing
  • Summary of Results

Chapter Five

Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Introduction
  • Discussions
  • Conclusions
  • Recommendations
  • Implication of the Study
  • Suggestion for further Studies
  • References
  • Appendix

List of Tables


  • Table 1: Distribution of Respondents by Gender
  • Table 2: Distribution of Respondents by Age
  • Table 3: Distribution of Respondents by Religion
  • Table 4: Distribution of Respondents by Type of School
  • Table 5: Means and Rank Order on Consequences of Premarital Sexual Activities among Secondary School Students
  • Table 6: Means, Standard Deviations and t-values on the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of gender
  • Table 7: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of Age
  • Table 8: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of Religion
  • Table 9: Means, Standard Deviations and t-values on the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of Type of School

Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the Study

The rate of sexual irresponsibility especially among youth seem to be on the increase. Adeoye (2006) asserted that modern day Nigerian have made sex one of the most discussed subject, however, our forefathers pretended as if sex does no exist by placing some taboos on it. Where as, modern Nigerians pretend that nothing else exists other than sex. Increasing rate in teenage and youth sexual activities can be sustained by numerous reports of unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortion and dumping of unwanted babies.

The present time can be described as a period of “sex explosion” in which youths are enjoying unprecedented ‘sex boom” and ‘sex escapades (Achiwizies 1990) further emphasized that sex is commonly practiced and no more a big deal. This is why it happens anywhere be it in the office, under a tree, inside the car or even in the classroom. It could emphatically be said that youth of nowadays engage in premarital sexual activities with limited knowledge of what is involved and its consequences.

In pursuit of education, students leave their homes for school and are no longer under the strict supervision of their parents. Most of them get exposed to modern lifestyle more than ever and due to peer group influence, they engage in premarital sexual affairs which they regard as due marks of civilization.

Since every child in secondary school is believed to be teenager and classified as adolescent, therefore interest and conception had been that adolescence is a period of intense. Importance of purity before marriage is fast dying out in Nigeria. Adolescents were viewed across cultural and social boundaries and the outcome is likely to exhibit similar behaviour. Gwander (2001) rightly pointed out that the meaning of sex to various people depends upon the social context in which it develops. Adolescents are changing in their attitude towards sexual behaviour especially attitudes of adolescents today and those adolescents of twenty or thirty years ago, there will be a significant distinction. Adolescents of today seem to value sexual activities more than their counterparts of yester years. Adolescents on the other hand see sex as a way of behaving like adults and exercising themselves to explore and understanding their own bodies.

Hyzer (2001) holds that adolescents of age 17 to 18 years are termed to have reached reproductive maturity. This is about the time the adolescent become intellectually mature and set their future goals. But situation is changing gradually with our adolescents. Nowadays sexual maturity and unset of sexual interest precede the intellectual maturity. One also has the feelings that since the advent of various contraceptives, there has been an increasing pressure on youths especially females to be involved in casual sex.

One of the factors that enhance “sexual revolution” is social change and modernization which is associated with educational opportunities, increase in the percentage of sexual activities among females especially unmarried adolescents, delay age at marriage and relaxation of traditional family’s emphasis on virginity. The consequences of the gender sexual behaviour include: premature pregnancy, abortion, venereal diseases, early marriage, HIV/AIDs infection and premature death.

Some adolescents found adult sanction against their sexuality difficult because they see their behaviour as fashion and act of socialization. Providing authentic sex information through counselling and sex education is an aspect that ought to engage society’s attention.


Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, a number of studies Adegboye, J.O. (2008), Anafi, J.K. (1993) Bakare, E.G. (2006) to mention but a few have shown that sexual activities among students or young ones particularly the unmarried is not something to be taken with levity but handled with urgent attention.

Many Nigerian teenage girls about 60% according to Kapan (1999) are victims of premarital sexual activity, unmarried pregnancy and babies. They get scared and try all sorts of possible means of getting rid of unwanted and unclaimed pregnancy the result is usually very fatal. It was found by Bakare (2006) that most of our teenagers and youth lack the proper parental upbringing right at home which is supposed to serve as first contact of moral reformation in our society. Above 60% of Nigerian parents do not take good and proper care of their children which exposes the adolescent to moral degeneration. They fail to give what is required of them as parents to their children at home. Some female children are subjected to premarital sex in the hands of human traffickers who perpetrate their obnoxious business with the knowledge of the parents.

The young females are lured into premarital sexual activities through prostitution because they are not under the supervision of their parents. About 30% of these female teenagers are raped which often lead to unwanted pregnancy or other consequences such as AIDS, STD among others. Bakare (2006). Its medical and psychological implication in the life of the adolescent girl such as early pregnancy, Rector Vaginal Fistula (RVF), Vesico Vaginal Fistula (VVF) is often associated with labour. These problems led to the investigation into the factors influencing premarital sexual activities of secondary school students in Ilorin West Local Government Area.

To the best of the researcher’s knowledge, none of the other researchers have considered this topic: consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State.


Research Questions

The following questions are asked to guide the conduct of the study.

  1. What are the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students in Ilorin West Local Government?
  2. Will there by any significant difference in the consequence of premarital sexual activities as expressed by respondents on the basis of gender?
  3. Will there by any significant difference in the consequence of premarital sexual activities as expressed by respondents on the basis of age.
  4. Will there by any significant difference in the consequence of premarital sexual activities as expressed by respondents on the basis of school type.
  5. Will there by any significant difference in the consequence of premarital sexual activities as expressed by respondents on the basis of religion.

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses are formulated to guide the study.

  1. There is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students on the basis of gender.
  2. There is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students on the basis of age.
  3. There is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students on the basis of school type.
  4. There is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students on the basis of religion.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the factors influencing premarital sexual activities among secondary school students. Also it will investigate the variables of age, gender, religion and school type.

The study would as well conclude its investigation by suggesting some probable solutions to premarital sexual activities among students especially in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State.


Significance of the Study

The present study is very significant because the findings would be of great opportunity for the government to plan a comfortable and favourable environment for female children in various schools.

Another significance of this study is that it would serve as challenge to parents to pay great attention on their children by keeping watch on the type of friends their children keep when they go out and return home every day and check them whenever any act of misbehaviour is noticed in the children’s way of life. More so, these study would educate the parents, teachers and school authorities on the need and importance of showing love, affection, interest and acceptance to the children and students both at home and at school.

It would also serve as a source of enlightenment for teenagers, especially why they need to abstain from premarital sexual activities.


Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined operationally as used in the study.

Abortion:

Abortion is deliberate termination of pregnancy.

Adolescence:

The transitional period from childhood to adult hood.

Adolescent:

Is a young person or teenager, who is no longer a child and also not yet an adult.

Premarital Sex:

Premarital sex is a sexual activity that exists before marriage.

Prostitution:

Is an unlawful sexual activity with the opposite sex purposely in exchange for money.

Parents:

Parents are male and female adults who have given birth to a child or children.

Taboo:

Taboo is a social rule that some words, subjects or actions must be avoided because they are considered as offence.

Teenage:

This is a period of sexual actualization when the children go through development of secondary sexual characteristics.

Teenager:

The teenagers are male and female children whose bodies are maturing and actively sensitive to external stimulus.


Scope of the Study

This study was conducted to investigate the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students in Ilorin West Local Government Area where two hundred (200) respondents were sampled for the study.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

Introduction

This chapter presents the discussion of the results of the study, the conclusion and recommendations for further studies. As indicated earlier, the purpose of this study was to findout the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of gender, age, religion and type of school. In order to obtain concrete information, a questionnaire titled “Consequences of Premarital Sexual activities among secondary school student” was used to obtain the desired information. Four hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance.


Discussion

The results of the study were discussed based on the distribution of respondents by gender, age, religion and type of school. The findings are based on each of the hypotheses formulated in chapter one. All the data collected were analyzed using t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).

The findings of the study revealed that of all the total respondents, more females participated in the study than their male counterparts. Respondents within the age of 19 years and above are more than respondents between 15 – 18 years, while respondents within the age range of 11 – 14 years have the least number of participants. More Muslims participated in the study than respondents who are Christians, while African Traditional Religion has the least participants. Respondents from mixed schools participated in the study more than those in the single school.
The rank order of respondents perception of the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students showed that item 6 with a mean score of 2.20 was ranked 1st and it stated that “in my view, premarital sexual activities leads to unwanted pregnancy”. While ranked 20th is item 1 with a mean score of 1.59 and it states that “in my view, premarital sexual activities leads to school dropout as a result of teenage pregnancy”.
Hypothesis One stated that there is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of gender. The result of the t-test analysis revealed that the hypothesis was accepted. Thus, there is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of gender. This finds corroborates the findings of Cadelina (2004) and Garba (2010) which says that both male and female students engage in premarital sexual behaviour which thus exposes them to the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies.

Hypothesis two stated that there is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of age. The result of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the hypothesis was accepted. Thus, there is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of age. The findings corroborates findings of Garba (2010) which states that irrespective of their age, both young and old/matured students engage in premarital sexual activities which thus leads to stigmatization use to the diseases they are affected with and the early parenthood they find themselves in.

Hypothesis three stated that there is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of religion. The result of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the hypothesis was accepted. Thus, there is no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of religion. This findings is in line with the findings of Olatunji (2000) which found out that religion has no significant difference in the consequences of premarital sex.

Hypothesis four stated that there is no significant difference the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of type of school. The result of the t-test analyses revealed that the hypothesis was rejected. Thus, there is a significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students on the basis of type of school. The findings of this study does not corroborate the findings of Garba (2010) who found out that type of school does not affect the consequences of premarital sexual activities as well as Adetoro (1984) who found out that the consequences of premarital sex among adolescents is not affected by their background or type of school.


Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, some conclusions were drawn. It revealed that the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students includes unwanted pregnancy, stigmatization, early parenthood, rejection by parents and other family members as a result of teenage pregnancy, sexual addiction etc.

It is therefore necessary for parents, teachers, counsellors and the society to teach sex education to the students. The study also revealed that variables such as gender, age and religion do not have any significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students. While the variable type of school showed a significant difference in the consequences of premarital sexual activities as expressed by secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis.


Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions of this study, the researcher strongly recommends the following in resolving the problems of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students and they are:

  1. Sex education should be taught right from home and it should be strictly emphasized upon in all institutions of learning in order to enlighten the students on the consequences of premarital sexual activities.
  2. Parents and teachers are role models to students so they should be disciplined in their behaviours and try to impact good moral societal values in the life of their children and students they teach to enhance a better society.
  3. Community leaders should teach the need for youths or people to remember their culture and roots and go back to it rather than allowing foreign culture to blind fold then and run the life of our future leaders.
  4. Religious leaders should endeavour to teach to the people/youths, the consequences of premarital sexual activities on an individual and making them realize that engaging in premarital sexual activities is against the ethics and laws of religion as well as a sin against God and as such, they should abstain from premarital sex.
  5. Enlightenment campaign on the radio, television, bill boards, and magazines should be encouraged in order to inform people on the consequences of premarital sexual activities if they involve themselves in it.
  6. Counsellors should collaborate with government in organizing seminars, workshops and conferences for the teaming youths and parents against immoral dressing, kind of films they watch and premarital sex and this will go a long way in enlighten them on the consequences of premarital sexual activities and thus, instill good morals in the youths.

Suggestions for Further Studies

The present research work was conducted on the consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students in Ilorin – West Local Government Area, Kwara State. Future researchers could carry out further researches on:

  1. Knowledge, attitude and perception of people towards premarital sexual activities.
  2. Consequences of premarital sexual activities among secondary school students in Nigeria.
  3. Influence of premarital sexual activities on students’ academic achievement.
  4. Future researchers should try to increase the sample from 200 to 600 respondents.

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Consequences Of Premarital Sexual Activities Among Secondary School Students In Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State

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