Consequences Of Overpopulation On Students In Government Secondary Schools’ Academic Performance
1.1 Background of the Study
According to the Federal Ministry of Education (2004), the population of Nigeria secondary schools stood at one hundred and eighteen thousand, two hundred (118200), while Imo state had a total of two hundred and five secondary schools (205). With a student population of 7,615 students, Owerri Municipal Council had about seven (7) secondary schools. This figure was very high when compared to that of 1999, which was inclusive according to the Federal Ministry of Education, because it was so during that time to attract Federal Government attention.
According to the above figure, there are nearly 21828 secondary schools in Nigeria, with 312 secondary schools in Imo state and 9 government secondary schools in Owerri Municipal (Education, 2008).
According to the statistics department (2008), the population of students in the Owerri Education zone increased rapidly from 7615 to 10570. The population of secondary schools is steadily increasing, contrary to the assertion of the new encyclopedia Britannica, volume (A). Unlike insect populations, human populations have rarely experienced explosive or collapsing numbers (Micheal, 2012).
Overcrowding occurs when the total number of people in a given area exceeds the available resources (Osuji, 2008). Overpopulation is also characterized as a lack of resource development in comparison to the number of people available (Osuji, 2008). This means that current resources are unable to keep up with the current population.
Evidence suggests that the number of students enrolled in urban schools is increasing. One of the factors contributing to the overcrowding of secondary schools in urban areas is the consistent availability of recreational facilities to keep students occupied after school (Fatima, 2010).
The under-population of secondary school students in Nigeria has had a negative impact on the Nigerian educational system, with disastrous consequences in terms of lost standards and their consequences (Ernest, 2009).
This overpopulation situation could be blamed for untold hardship, corruption, social disorder, a low standard of living, and crime, among other things. There will be a lower standard of education, insufficient instructional materials, production of poor or few quality text books, overcrowding in classrooms, and attendant character education (dropout as a product of so-called schools) (Charles, 2007).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The number of students enrolled in urban secondary schools has risen steadily over time (Uju, 2009). This has been steady, despite the fact that there has been no growth in facilities, teachers, or infrastructure. With the decline in the quality of education and output, it is necessary to determine whether the increase in student population has a direct impact on their academic performance, as well as to identify the causes of the increase in student population in government secondary schools in the Anambra state and what can be done to address the situation (Joe, 2010).
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study’s major goal is to determine the influence of overpopulation on the academic performance of government secondary students in particular.
- Determine the reasons behind the growth in the number of pupils in government secondary schools.
- Determine the impact of an increase in the number of students in government secondary schools on student academic performance.
- Make recommendations on how to reduce the number of pupils in the classroom.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the reasons behind the growth in the number of pupils in government secondary schools?
- What are the impact of an increase in the number of students in government secondary schools on student academic performance?
- What are the recommendations on how to reduce the number of pupils in the classroom?
1.5 Significance of the Study
Students, teachers, educational planners, the government, and society as a whole will gain greatly from this research.
- It will encourage and raise kids’ enthusiasm to attend school, as well as assist them improve their academic performance.
- It will assist instructors in improving their ability to manage the classroom effectively since a reduction in the number of students improves teacher-student relationships, which leads to effective and efficient academic performance.
- It will be a guide document for education planners, allowing them to verify the population of students in proportion to the available schools to accommodate them.
- It will serve as a guide for the government in determining the need to improve the infrastructure available for teaching and learning.
The research will be extremely beneficial to society as a whole since it will assist in the production of qualified people who will contribute positively to the society’s progress, as well as serving as a resource and reference material for future students.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will focus on determining the reasons behind the growth in the number of pupils in government secondary schools. Also, this study will determine the impact of an increase in the number of students in government secondary schools on student academic performance, and make recommendations on how to reduce the number of pupils in the classroom. Hence, this study will be delimited to Anambra State.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What is overpopulation in education?
In educational settings or school systems overpopulation can be referred to as a situation whereby the number of student’s pupils available in the school system is greater than the resources available in that school. These include infrastructural facilities i.e. building etc ICT and so on.
How does population growth in secondary school affect the learning process?
The rise in the population growth in secondary school has really affected the learning process of the students because of the inadequate facilities which include classrooms, overpopulation has generated poor performance in academic work and has turned the school environment into a playing ground instead of to learning environment.
How does overpopulation make the sitting arrangement in a classroom become?
Overpopulation makes sitting arrangement in a classroom become so complex in the sense that the number of students will be greater than the seat available. A place, community or society is said to be over populated, when the resources or facilities available cannot cater for the residence of that place or society.
Is large class enrolment a threat to primary school academic standard?
Large class enrolment: A threat to primary school academic standard and sustainable education system. Nigerian Journal of Curriculum Studies 9 (2); 133-141. Sontowa, 0.0. (2003), Quality teachers and quality teaching: Towards achieving quality USE.