Conflict Management In Media Organization And Its Implications On Employees Productivity (A Case Study Of The Guardian Nigeria)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Conflict Management In Media Organization And Its Implications On Employees Productivity (A Case Study Of The Guardian Nigeria) – Charles


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of social media on students mental health in tertiary institutions using Lagos state university as a case study. The study was specifically set to identify the causes of conflicts in media organizations in Nigeria; determine the extent conflict influences employees performance in Media organizations in Nigeria; determine whether there is a significant relationship between conflict management and employees performance; and ascertain the impact of conflict management on employees performance in Media organizations. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of Guardian Nigeria, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 119 respondents and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that the causes of conflicts in media organizations in Nigeria includes; violation of collective agreement, poor communication flow, background diversity, condition of employment, and poor leadership style. Furthermore the study also revealed that there is a significant relationship between conflict management and employees performance. Therefore the study recommends that as part of organization development, employers in the media sector should develop a wider range of methods for solving problems which give rise to conflicts. Methods such as consensus, interest based bargaining, negotiation and integrative decision making are critical examples. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Conflicts are inevitable. Conflicts are an everyday phenomenon in each organisation. There is growing recognition of the importance of conflict in an organisation. A recent survey indicated that managers spend a considerable portion of their time dealing with conflict and that conflict management becomes increasingly important to their effectiveness. Obisi (1996) argues that despite this fact peace forms one of the fundamental factors for enhanced productivity with resultant benefits to both the labour and management as well as for the economic development of the country. It will not be out of place therefore, to consider conflict as an inevitable and desirable factor in the work place. Conflict could be viewed as a situation of competition in which the parties are aware of the incomparability of potential future position in which each party wishes to occupy a position that is incompatible with the wishes of the other. Conflict could arise because of the employee quest to maximise profit while workers representatives are out to ensure continuous improved condition of living for their member. Conflict could also arise as a result of failure to honour agreed items on collective bargaining. Damachi (1999) emphasises that if those workers rights and employee prerogative are trampled upon, could also cause conflict. These include pay, condition of service, and fringe benefits among others. Azamosa (2004) observed that conflicts involve the total range of behaviours and attitudes that is in opposition between owners/managers on the one hand and working people on the other. It is a state of disagreement over issues of substance or emotional antagonism and may arise due to anger, mistrust or personality clashes.

Conflict management depends on the kind of strategies that suit the organisation and have an added advantage to the organization in the long run. Conflict management is also seen as a wider concept which involves conflict management strategies, process and skills to mitigating conflicts in a workplace (Mukhtar, 2013). The conflict management strategies include dominating, compromising, integrating, avoidance and accommodation (Rahim, 2002) who studied the five different strategies of conflict management. In preference for one or another conflict management strategies, all depends on certain factors which include the kind of conflict, position of the parties and the kind of the relationship (Montes, Rodriguez, & Serrano, 2012).

Employee productivity is affected when conflicts are many and this affects hoe the employee perform in the work environment (Francis, 2015). The conflicts usually affect the creativity and innovation, efficiency and effectiveness of the employees, there’s also change in attitude and many others. Few conflicts are easily handled than when they are many which can be bad in the long run since conflict is seen to have both positive and negative effects in the organization performance (Iravo, 2011). Various researchers have described two types of conflicts such as constructive and destructive. Constructive conflicts are conflicts which end up being good or have a positive impact whereas destructive conflicts end up being disastrous.Ting (1997) noted that employee’s job productivity however, may not always be attained because of the differences in the educational background, sexual orientation, personalities, etc. and this is an indication of traces of conflict in the system.

Conflict is posing serious challenges to management (Adomi & Anie, 2005) and conflict management is one of the basic responsibilities of management since it is an essential element of human relations and it is ever present process that will be present as long as people vie for power, jobs, resources, security and recognition (Henry, 2009). Hence, its management has become the top priory list for the survival of organisations. Armstrong (2006) reiterates that conflict management is the extent by which an organization to identify the sources of conflict and put strategic measures to minimize or control conflict entirely. Effective conflict management is the extent by which an organisation is achieving planned objectives by harnessing the individual’s and groups’ efforts (Ahmadian, 2012). Therefore this study examine conflict management in media organization and its implications on employees productivity using the guardian Nigeria a case study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Healthy workplace competition or constructive conflict management encourages employee development as well as organizational productivity, whereas unhealthy workplace competition or destructive conflicts have the opposite effect. The role of employees in driving media organizational productivity, cannot be underestimated. When employee productivity is harmed, it frequently has a detrimental impact on media organizational productivity. Low organizational productivity is common in many Nigerian media organizations as a result of low employee productivity. Conflicts among employees are one of the primary factors of the aforementioned low productivity among employees in firms, according to numerous arguments. Employee rivalry and unhealthy competition abound in the Nigerian media organizations. Jealousy and envy, struggle for positions in the media organizations, resistance to advice from a colleague on how to handle work better in the workplace, tribalism and hatred for another person’s tribe, and other factors may contribute to this type of conflict. Employees productivity are frequently harmed as a result of the types of conflicts that arise as a result of these situations. Therefore, this study focuses on conflict management in media organization and its implications on employees productivity using the guardian Nigeria a case study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study is to examine conflict management in media organization and its implications on employees productivity using the Guardian Nigeria as a case study, specifically the study intends to:

  1. Identify the causes of conflicts in media organizations in Nigeria.
  2. Determine the extent conflict influences employees performance in Media organizations in Nigeria.
  3. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between conflict management and employees performance.
  4. Ascertain the impact of conflict management on employees performance in Media organizations

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the causes of conflicts in media organizations in Nigeria?
  2. What is the extent conflict influences employees performance in Media organizations in Nigeria?
  3. Is there a significant relationship between conflict management and employees performance?
  4. What is the impact of conflict management on employees performance in Media organizations?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between conflict management and employees performance.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between conflict management and employees performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study would benefit among others employees in the media organization especially the guardian Nigeria who would be able to understand the importance of conflict management and its impact on working together in a team. It would also provide them motivation and help them to avoid perceived conflict also known as pseudo-conflict.

The Management will also benefit from this study, because conflict if left unresolved could lead to lower sales, poor customer service and fewer profits. The study would help the organization project a positive corporate image to the public.

The Government will benefit from this study through the acquisition of dynamic working citizens who will be translated into professionals who can meet international standards through bringing into the market quality and quantity products and services. This would in turn project into the country’s economy and boost it. Also an organization producing well would employ more due to diversification, expansion, mergers and acquisitions therefore translating into reduction of unemployment.

The study will also benefit the general public because it would expand knowledge of the importance of managing conflict in everyday life.

Lastly, the study also contributes knowledge on existing literature related to conflicts in school contexts, and will lay foundations for further studies in the field of education management.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on conflict management in media organization and its implications on employees productivity using the guardian Nigeria a case study. Hence the study will be delimited the Guardian Nigeria.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Conflicts:

This refers to a state of crisis or disagreement between principals and teachers in schools.

Conflicts Management Strategies:

Techniques that principal will adopt in solving problems or management styles that would be employed in resolving crises in schools.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on conflict management in media organization and its implications on employees productivity using the Guardian Nigeria as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of social media on students mental health in tertiary institutions using Lagos state university as a case study. The study was specifically set to identify the causes of conflicts in media organizations in Nigeria; determine the extent conflict influences employees performance in Media organizations in Nigeria; determine whether there is a significant relationship between conflict management and employees performance; and ascertain the impact of conflict management on employees performance in Media organizations.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of Guardian Nigeria, Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The causes of conflicts in media organizations in Nigeria includes; violation of collective agreement, poor communication flow, background diversity, condition of employment, and poor leadership style.
  2. Conflict significantly influences employees performance in Media organizations in Nigeria.
  3. There is a significant relationship between conflict management and employees performance.
  4. Conflict management improves employees performance in Media organizations.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. As part of organization development, employers in the media sector should develop a wider range of methods for solving problems which give rise to conflicts. Methods such as consensus, interest based bargaining, negotiation and integrative decision making are critical examples.
  2. Participatory approach, collective bargaining and democratic style of leadership should be engaged regularly in order to create peace and tranquility among employers and employees in the media sector.
  3. There should be free flow of information, because, it is the live wire of any organization and once it is poorly delivered or hoarded there will be problem. Free access to information brings uniformity, awareness and quick delivery of services.

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