Computer Use And Students Academic Performance

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science Education

Computer Use And Students Academic Performance


Abstract


This study looks at how computer use influences the academic achievement of junior secondary school students in Abuja Municipal Area Council. The study employed a descriptive survey design. The survey discovered that junior secondary schools lacked ICT facilities. Teachers and students had little exposure to ICT facilities. According to the report, some of the advantages of adopting ICT in technical college include making teaching and learning more exciting, assisting teachers in staying current, and improving the quality of work of both professors and students. Despite these advantages, the study identified some of the problems that ICT faces, including: insufficient computer literacy among teachers; and insufficient ICT infrastructure. It was consequently advised that the government expand education sector financing to allow for ICT programs in junior secondary schools, and that teachers receive periodic training on ICT computer skills acquisition.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

During the last two decades education institutions have invested heavily in information and communication technologies (ICT) particularly computers. The use of computers has had a major impact in the secondary school context, and in teaching and learning methods (Ema and Ajayi, 2006).

One puzzling question is the effective impact of these computers usage on student achievement and on the returns of education. Many academic researchers have tried to answer this question at the theoretical and empirical levels. According to Anyanwu (2003), they have faced two main difficulties. On one hand, student performance is hard to observe and there is still confusion about its definition. On the other hand, computer is evolving technologies and their effects are difficult to isolate from their environment.

There is no standard definition for student achievement. The standard approach focuses on achievement and curricula, how students understand the subjects and obtain their certificate or their marks. However, a more extensive definition deals with competencies, skills and attitudes learned through the education experience (Kamba, 2009). The narrow definition allows the observation of the outcomes of any change in secondary education, while the more extensive definition needs a more complex strategy of observation and a focus on the labour market. The outcomes of education are mainly validated in the higher institutions.

The effect of computer usage on learning is currently in relation to the internet to facilitate teaching and learning. Computers are the technologies used in conveying, manipulation and storage of data by electronic means, they provide an array of powerful tools that may help in transforming the present isolated teacher-centered and text-bound classrooms into rich, student-focused, interactive knowledge environments (Ogunsola, 2005).

To meet these challenges, secondary schools must embrace the new technologies and appropriate computer use for learning. The relationship between the use of computer and student performance in secondary schools is not clear, and there are contradictory results in the literature. Earlier economic research has failed to provide a clear consensus concerning the effect on students’ achievement (Kamba, 2009).

Since student performance is mainly explained by a student’s characteristics, educational environment and teachers’ characteristics, the use of computers may have an impact on these determinants and consequently the outcome of education. The differences observed in the performances of students are thus more related to the differentiated impact of computer usage on the standard determinants.

The direct link between computer use and students’ achievement has been the focus of extensive literature during the last two decades. Several studies have tried to explain the role and the added value of the computer technologies in classrooms and on student’s achievement. The first body of literature explored the impact of computer uses. Since the Internet revolution, there has been a shift in the literature that focuses more on the impact of online activities: use of Internet, use of educative online platforms, digital devices, use of blogs and wikis, etc.

Looking at the link between computer usage and student achievement seems nowadays a misunderstanding of the role and nature of these technologies. In fact, since computer is general purpose technology (GPT), it needs to be specified in order to meet the needs expressed by students and to be adapted to the local context and constraints (Antonelli, 2003; Youssef, 2008).

A variety of models of usages can be identified leading to the same outcome. Computer usage brings widened possibilities for the learning processes that are independent from place and space. Computer usage also allows more flexible (asynchronous) and more personalized learning. It offers new methods of delivering subject at secondary education level. Taking advantage of these opportunities needs a profound change in the organization of the secondary education system.


1.2 Statement of Problem

For many years, educational researchers have maintained an interest in the effective prediction of students’ academic achievement at school. The prediction and explanation of academic achievement and the examination of the factors relating to the academic achievement are topics of greatest importance in different educational levels. Studies have shown that prior academic achievement is an important predictor of performance at other levels of education. Similarly, cognitive ability was found as the strongest predictor of academic achievement. However, some studies confirm that the correlation between cognitive ability and academic achievement tends to decline as students progress in the educational system.

The direct link between computer usage and students’ academic achievement has been the focus of extensive literature during the last two decades. Some of them help students with their learning by improving the communication between them and the instructors (Valasidou and Bousiou, 2005). Leuven et al. (2004) stated that there is no evidence for a relationship between increased educational use of computer and students’ academic achievement. In fact, they find a consistently negative and marginally significant relationship between computer usage and some student achievement measures. In support to these, some students may use computer usage to increase their leisure time and have less time to study. Online gaming and increased communication channels do not necessarily mean increased achievement. Based on all these, the researcher is examining the effect of computer usage on academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The study was designed to investigate the computer use and students academic performance of Abuja municipal area council’s junior secondary school students. The major aim of this research work was :

  1. To determine the level in which computer facilities are available for teaching and learning in Abuja Municipal Area council.
  2. To determine the level teachers and students in Junior secondary schools use computer facilities in teaching-learning.
  3. To examine the relationship between computer usage and academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria
  4. To determine the challenges facing computer facilities in Junior secondary schools in Abuja Municipal Area council.

1.4 Research Questions

For the purpose of this study, the researcher has proposed the following research questions.

  1. To what level are the computer facilities available for teaching and learning in Abuja Municipal Area council Junior secondary schools?
  2. To what level does teachers and students in Junior secondary schools use computer facilities in teaching-learning ?
  3. What is the relationship between computer usage and academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria?
  4. What are the challenges facing computer facilities in Junior secondary schools in Abuja Municipal Area council ?

1.5 Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:

Ho: There is no significant relationship between computer usage and academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria

H1: There is significant relationship between computer usage and academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The outcome of this study aims at determining whether or not the use of computers has any significant influence on the academic achievement of students in Junior secondary schools in Nigeria.

More over education is the bedrock of any society. Nigeria as a developing nation needs a standard Junior secondary schools that has available learning resources, that teachers can improvise learning resources easily and more often also where teachers and students utilize learning resources on a regular basis. It could be a guide line for incoming students and be educative to them when writing and studying similar problems in school.

This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area. The teachers work will be made easier when instructional material are adequate and upgrade following stored information in the computer. This materials is of benefits to educational administrators to achieve their objectives which is to set-up computer study at the Junior secondary school level as to well as devising clear strategies and technologies to be used by the federal and state government in introducing computer education in Nigeria. This strategy includes:

  • Training teachers and associate personnel.
  • Hardware facilities
  • Curriculum development
  • Software development and evaluation
  • Maintenance of hardware and peripherals

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study on the Investigation On Computer Usage As It Affects The Academic Performance Of Abuja Municipal Area Council’s Junior Secondary School Students. The study is meant to discover the extent of availability of computer systems and their accessories in Junior secondary schools within Abuja Municipal Area council. The accessories expected to be seen in the schools include:

  • Input devices such as keyboard, mouse etc.
  • Output devices such as monitors, scanner,
  • Installation of software including system, Application software and Equipped computer lab.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Computer:

It is the electronic device that accepts data as an input and processes them electronics to produce the desired output or information with the aid of a set of instructions.

Accessories:

Are those computer devices that are useful, helpful to the operations of the computer.

Program:

A program is a set of instructions that informs the computer on what to do and how to do that.

Software:

Is a collective term that refers to a group of related programs that directs the computer on what to do and how to do such a thing.

Hardware:

Is a collective term that refers to all the physical components of the computer that can be seen or touched.

Peripherals:

Are the computer devices that are connected to the central processing unit via cables or cords.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter is concerned with summary of the findings, appropriate conclusion and recommendation to the identified problems from the findings.


5.2 Summary

This study was carried out to examine effect of computer usage on academic performance of students. The hypothesis was tested, and related literatures were reviewed. The instrument used in collecting data was questionnaire and the data collected was analyzed in the previous chapter.


5.3 Conclusion

It is clear that the junior secondary schools in AMAC and the country at large has no smooth running of education system. In fact, all levels of education are plagued with catalogue of problems ranging from underfunding to mismanagement. If the educational sector of our schools throughout the state is to maintain maximum standards, it should be provided with adequate funds, infrastructural facilities in term of modern classrooms equipped with electronic computer system which are connected to the internet and highly qualified personnel that can effectively, utilize these resources.

Finally, our junior secondary school students should be given the best in education with modern facilities which will in turn draw out the best in every student and ensure the utility of these students to the development of AMAC, and the country at large.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the investigations carried out on topic, the following recommendations are made:

  1. ICT equipment and facilities should be made available to all Junior secondary schools.
  2. Government should encourage and put in place policies to attract international codes and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to invest on ICT related projects in secondary schools.
  3. Teachers that are not ICT compliance should be encouraged by the secondary school administrators to study further in order to meet up with new demand of ICT literate teacher.
  4. Attention should be paid to the deforming state of facilities in our secondary school. Also ICT system and facilities like laboratory should be provided in secondary school.

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