Computer Networking Using Wireless Network

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science Education

Computer Networking Using Wireless Network


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network which allows computers to exchange data. In computer networks, networked computing devices pass data to each other along network links (data connections). The connections between nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet (Wikipedia, 2015).

Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, servers as well as networking hardware. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other (Geier, 2001).

Computer networks differ in the transmission media used to carry their signals, the communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network’s size, topology and organizational intent. In most cases, communications protocols are layered on (i.e. work using) other more specific or more general communications protocols, except for the physical layer that directly deals with the transmission media. Computer networks support applications such as access to the World Wide Web, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications (Wikipedia, 2015).

A wireless network is any type of computer network that uses wireless data connections for connecting network nodes. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and enterprise (business) installations avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between various equipment locations. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented and administered using radio communication. This implementation takes place at the physical level (layer) of the OSI model network structure. Examples of wireless networks include cell phone networks, Wi-Fi local networks and terrestrial microwave networks.

Wireless media uses the antennas for sending and receiving the electromagnetic waves without using any physical conductors. Radio frequencies (RF) are generated by antennas that propagate the waves into the air. According to Molisch (2005), antennas for wireless transmission can be fall under two different categories:

Directional Antennas:

Directional antennas are commonly used in point-to-point configurations connecting two distant buildings LANs, and sometimes point-to-multipoint (connecting two WLANs). In this, sending and receiving antenna must be properly aligned for proper transmission. An example of a directional antenna is a Yagi antenna: this antenna allows you to adjust the direction and focus of the signal to strengthen the range/reach.

Omni-Directional Antennas:

Omni-directional antennas are used in point-to multi-point configurations, where they distribute the wireless signal to other computers or devices in WLAN. An access point would use an Omni-directional antenna. These antennas can also be used for point-to-point connections. In this, signal is spread in all directions and can be received by any antenna which is compatible to receive the signals.

However, this study is aimed at providing an overview on computer networking with specific emphasis on wireless network.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Wireless network is a network through which data signals flow through the air. It’s useful for people to communicate and access applications and information without wires (Rappaport, 2002). It allows people to interact with e-mail or browse the Internet from a location that they prefer. Wireless networks are not bound to a channel to follow like wired networks. Wireless networking is less expensive and much easier to install than more traditional wired networking. Wireless networking is used at the airport, or in hotel lobbies, and a small office or home network etc. The transmitted distance can be anywhere between a few meters as a television’s remote control and thousands of kilometers as radio communication.

Wireless network uses the antennas for sending and receiving the electromagnetic waves without using any physical conductors. Radio frequencies (RF) are generated by antennas that propagate the waves into the air (Rhoton, 2001). A detailed overview of wireless network will be highlighted in this study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To provide an overview on wireless network
  2. To examine the different types of wireless network
  3. To determine the structure and components of a wireless network
  4. To analyze the advantages of wireless network

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is a wireless network?
  2. What are the different types of wireless network?
  3. What are the structure and components of a wireless network?
  4. What are the advantages of wireless network?

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study on the computer networking using wireless network has the following significance:

It will educate the general public on the details about computer networking with more emphasis on wireless network. It will also familiarize students and the general public about the structure and components of wireless network and most importantly the various types of wireless networks that exists.

This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the relationship between performance assessment and investment decision, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study on computer networking using wireless network will provide an overview of computer networking with more emphasis on wireless networks. It will also cover all the types of wireless network that exists, structure and components of the wireless network.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Computer:

An electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data) in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals.

Networking:

Connection of computers together in order to make them share information

Internet:

A global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols

Communication:

The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium.

Wireless Network:

Wireless is the term used to describe any computer network where there is no physical wired connection between sender and receiver, but rather the network is connected by radio waves and/or microwaves to maintain communications.


Chapter Two


Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter gives an insight into various studies conducted by outstanding researchers, as well as explained terminologies with regards to computer networking using wireless network.

The chapter also gives a resume of the history and present status of the problem delineated by a concise review of previous studies into closely related problems.


2.2 Theoretical Framework

Although the origins of the neoinstitutional approach in economics are reflected in the early work of Ronald Coase (Coase 1937), the methodological framework and analytical apparatus, as well as the extension of its scope to other social sciences –like sociology, law, and political science – is of recent origin, all having taken place since 1960. This happens to coincide with the rise of the Internet – a new phenomenon which, despite a very short history of less than 50 years, has broughtabout fundamental changes in practically all aspects of human life – economic, social, cultural, educational, political, etc. (Abbate 1999). Neo institutional analysis can be helpful in understanding this development.


2.3 The Concept of the Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as mobile apps including social media apps, the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, multiplayer online games, telephony, and peer-to-peer networks for file sharing.

The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the United States government in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication via computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks.The linking of commercial enterprises by the early 1990s marks the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, and generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, and mobile computers were connected to the network.

Although the Internet has been widely used by academia since the 1980s, the commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2014, 38 percent of the world’s human population has used the services of the Internet within the past year—over 100 times more people than were using it in 1995.Internet use grew rapidly in the West from the mid-1990s to early 2000s and from the late 1990s to present in the developing world (Stewart, 2000).

Most traditional communications media, including telephony and television, are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as Internet telephony and Internet television. Newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The entertainment industry, including music, film, and gaming, was initially the fastest growing online segment. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries (Reips, 2008).

The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System (DNS), are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.

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