Competencies Need By Office Managers In An Organization (Case Study Is Survey Of Selected Business Organization In Lafia)

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Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


I humbly dedicate this work to God Almighty who has given me the gift of life, good health, protection, knowledge and above all wisdom to make this work a reality.
To my parents ………… for giving me both moral and financial support throughout my ND time. And also to my sisters, …………… and to my brothers ………


I am very thankful to God Almighty for his grace upon me. To my academic mentors in the persons of ………………, my project supervisor for educating me on the act of project writing and method of its researchers and also to other lecturers who have taught me in the course of writing this project.

I equally appreciate the effort of my family members and all those other in making sure that I am a useful member of the society. May God bless and sustain them all in their pursuit or strive to attain their life goal.


One of the most important criteria for having effective managers is competency. Managers are required to ensure that organizations achieve their objectives. The study focused on Lafia as case study. Today, when measuring organization’s performance, its better results more and more are referred not to material recourses of an organization, but to human resources and their competencies; development of competencies has become one of the key priorities of the organization.

This study investigates the connections between managerial competency and performance of SME’s. Data collection was made through questionnaires, and the constructs used were adapted from prior research and already tested for reliability. For the study we used a structured questionaries’ and the data analyses where made through statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Results indicated support for the theoretical model that was considered. The findings suggest that managerial competency is associated with performance.

Table Of Contents

  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract

Chapter One:Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Research questions
  • 1.4 Objectives of the study
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.8 Organization of Study

Chapter Two:Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.1.1 Concept of managerial competencies
  • 2.1.2 Managerial competencies and management performance
  • 2.1.3 Approaches to competencies and competency-based management
  • 2.1.4 Assessment and development of competencies
  • 2.1.5 Business performance
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.2.1 Douglas McGregor theory X and Y
  • 2.2.2 The Human Relations Theory
  • 2.2.3 Systems Theory
  • 2.3 Empirical Review
  • 2.4 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.5 Summary of Literature review

Chapter Three:Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Sources of Data
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sampling of the study
  • 3.5 Instrumentation
  • 3.6 Data collection
  • 3.7 Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Modeling

Chapter Four:Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five:Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the study

Research on competencies went to analyze, understand and explain the importance of managerial competencies in the organizations. Many studies showed that competencies is a cluster of the related knowledge, skills characteristics and attitudes that correlates with effective performance and are able to be measured evaluated, and strength through training and development programs it is consider as a common term for employees to assert their working and show the real activities (Berge et al., 2002). Every business organization need effective managers to be successful in today’s highly competitive and dynamic business environment.

It is very important for a business organization to identify, develop, and retain talented people. Every successful and effective manager possesses several competencies that enabled him to perform efficiently and effectively at different managerial levels. Management occurs within any type of organizational context where human and physical resources are combined to achieve certain objectives. Managerial competencies play today an important role in different types of organizations.

The Competencies can detect the differences between average and excellent managers. The relationship between managerial competences and business success still remains an important issue within organizational literature (Crook et al., 2011). Competencies can give companies their competitive advantage over their competitors. This can be achieved through companies developing competencies that are not easily transferable from one business to another. Competencies can also be called maturing when they are no longer relevant to the firm’s strategic positioning. Some core competencies that are difficult to duplicate can be developed through the firm’s reputation, service, traditions and image (Lado et. al, 1994).

Managerial competencies refer to knowledge, abilities, skills and behaviors required for effective job performance in managerial occupations.

In addition to executing each function effectively, each level of manager should demonstrate managerial skills with regard to performing job-related tasks and responsibilities because management skills developed order and consistency through management functions (Bateman & Snell, 2002). Competencies vary depending on the type of business and manager competencies, similar to company core competencies, which can change with variables such as time, location of business or size of business.

The precise definition of managerial competencies is heavily contested. In the context of SMEs, managerial competencies are defined as sets of knowledge, skills, behaviors and attitudes that can contribute to personal effectiveness of managers (Hellriegel, Jackson, Solcum and Staude, 2008). Contemporary business companies need management professionals with managerial competences that would enable an employee to success-fully perform in ever changing business and economic environment.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

There are serious challenges in business organizations in Nigeria ranging from inadequate coverage of work schedule, staff persistent lateness, frequent conflict, truancy among students, inadequate and damaged physical facilities, shortage of fund among others.

This may be as a result of poor managers’ competencies in effective and efficient management of the key resources in every organization including the organizational system which are; human, material, financial and time resources. No meaningful organizational change can take place without effective management of resources. Premised on these challenges that the study aimed at analysing Managers’ managerial competencies for effective management of organizational resources in selected business organizations inLafia.

1.3 Research Questions

The following questions were raised up for the purpose of this research:

  1. Which are the managerial competencies that can help in the process of business performance?
  2. What are professional competencies?
  3. What are social competencies?
  4. What are personal competencies?
  5. Which managerial competencies – professional, social or personal are more important for business performance?

1.4 Objectives Of The Study

The main objective of the study is to examine competencies need by office managers in an organization.
Specifically, the study tries to;

  1. Examine the managerial competencies that can help in the process of business performance.
  2. Elucidate concept of professional competencies.
  3. Elucidate the concept of social competencies.
  4. Elucidate the concept of personal competencies.
  5. Examine which managerial competencies – professional, social or personal are more important for business performance.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

These study findings may generate knowledge that may be utilized by office managers on the competencies of managers necessary for effective leadership for the realization of employee performance. Secondly, the study findings may provide a detailed explanation of the managerial competencies of the office managers within the changing educational scenario so as to improve understanding of manager’s roles hence reduce any role ambiguities and role conflicts within the organizational framework.

Thirdly, the study findings may help in developing knowledge for office managers that participate in the training of educationists and finally, the research findings may form a basis for generalization of the recommendations for other organizations in Nigeria.

1.6 Scope Of Study

This study was carried out by analyzing thecompetencies need by office managers in an organization for effective management of the business organization. The study was limited to selected business organizations in Lafia.

1.7 Limitations Of The Study

The descriptive survey as a research design had its limitation of difficulty in using its findings for generalization since only a part can be used to represent the whole. In this case, the competencies need by office managers in an organization in Lafia could not be generalized to the entire nation. To reduce this limitation however, literature works were widely consulted to make references to issues being discussed which are of relevance to the other areas of the country.

Difficulty in the collection of primary data from relevant business organzations. This challenge was the result of the seemingly reluctance of respondents to provide information relevant to the study. This was taken care of by taking a letter from the school authorities that served as evidence that this study was just for academic purpose. Thus, the information given was treated with utmost confidentiality.

1.8 Organization Of Study

The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature.

The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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