Comparison Of The Strength Of Concrete Produced With Coarse Aggregate In Different Location

Project and Seminar Material for Building Technology BT

Comparison Of The Strength Of Concrete Produced With Coarse Aggregate In Different Location


This project work is aimed at investigating and comparing the strength of coarse aggregate from different source. These include both the physical and mechanical properties of coarse aggregate materials collected from different sources. The sample is collected from Abakaliki quarry site in Ebonyi State, Lokpanta quarry site in Umunneochi, Abia State and Otanmiri River in Owerri, Imo State, all in South East part of Nigeria. The properties of these aggregates differ from place to place due to the composition of the parent material, weathering and other environmental factors.

Some regulatory bodies like British Standard Institute BSI and American Association of State Highway and Transportation officials AASHTO has formulated standard testing methods for investigating the physical and chemical properties of aggregate. Based on BS and ASTM, some tests were carried out on the different samples which includes; Los Angeles Abrasion test, Aggregate Impact Value test, Specific Gravity and Water Absorption tests, Grading test (sieve analysis) and Compression test. These tests were carried out on the three samples to investigate their properties and finally, a comparison was made on their different properties.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Aggregates are very important constituent in construction work. They reduce shrinking, give body to concrete and effect economy. (Shetty, 2005). In road construction, aggregates are combined with asphalt binding medium to form a compound material. It can also be use with a stabilizer or by self for base and sub-base courses.

Aggregates are used in almost all construction works like:

  1. Road bases and sub-bases
  2. Asphalt concrete
  3. Asphalt surface
  4. Portland cement concrete
  5. Rails and ballasts
  6. Trench backfill
  7. Water filtration beds
  8. Rip rap and gabion materials

Aggregates were earlier considered as a chemically inert material but now it has been found out that some of the aggregates are chemically active and also that some aggregate exhibit chemical bonds at the interface of aggregate and cement paste.

Aggregate can occur naturally or artificially. Naturally curing aggregates are particles resulting from the weathering of rocks. They can be gotten from rivers, say gravels and sand stone or crushed rock called chippings.

The mere fact that aggregate occupy 70-80 percent of the volume of concrete and 40 percent of asphalt concrete, has an impact on various characteristics and properties of concrete and asphalt.

To know more about concrete, it is important that one should know more about aggregate, which constitute the major volume.

In Nigeria, the basic sources of aggregate either for concrete work or road constructions are from those occurring naturally which are cheaper and readily available. The most widely used aggregate is crushed rock, which are blasted from natural depositions and crushed to different sizes depending on the purpose and use. The study of aggregates (their types, properties and test) is of great important to the Civil Engineering.

This study is to ascertain the different properties of aggregates used in construction works. This process of testing provides or establishes a common basis for comparison of aggregates from different sources and to interchange ideas between different locations.

In this project work, we will be looking at different properties of coarse aggregates from different sources.
Case study include:

  • Abakaliki
  • Lokpanta
  • Otanmiri River

The locations are all in South-Eastern part of Nigeria.

1.2 Scope of the Study

This project work is limited to the investigation of the properties of coarse aggregate from different sources, including. Otanmiri River, Lokpanta quarry site and Abakaliki quarry site. All in South Eastern part of Nigeria.

1.3 Significance of the Study

This project will be of great importance to construction firms that make use of aggregate.
Secondly, this work will be relevant and important to all students in the field of civil engineering who wish to expand their knowledge about coarse aggregates.

1.4 Objective of the Study

  1. To determine the properties of coarse aggregate. Sample collected from different locations. Abakaliki, Lokpanta and Otanmiri, all in south east part of Nigeria.
  2. To compare the properties of these aggregates from different sources.
  3. To determine the strength of aggregate from different source and compare.

1.5 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study, some constraints and limitations were encountered; the first limitation is that of sourcing for the material needed to carry on with the project work.

The second limitation is that of time. The time allocated for this project is short considering the practical involved.

The last limitation of this work is the availability of standard testing equipment, this limitation is the major limitation in this project and it led to the delay of the work as we source for the equipments required for the practical.

Chapter Six

6.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

6.1 Conclusion

It is very obvious that the properties of coarse aggregates vary especially when they are not from the same source. These variations in strength and other properties are due to:


The composition of the parent materials

Source of data

Information and some other factors which was not our target in this research work.

Crushed rocks or aggregates blasted from natural depositions which are crushed locally or with standard crushing machine are found to be rougher or flakier than river stones or gravels, which are smooth and round.

Other properties investigated were Abrasion, impact value, specific gravity, water absorption and compressive strength.

Abrasion: The Abakaliki and Lokpanta samples were found to have high resistance to abrasion than Otanmiri sample.

Impact Value: The Abakaliki and Lokpanta samples had impact values between 20% and 30% showing that they can resist satisfactorily a shock or sudden impact on roads.

Water Absorption: The three samples have high water absorption with Abakaliki sample having the highest value of 4.9.

Specific Gravity: Lokpanta sample was found to be more dense or denser than others with a specific gravity (apparent relative density) of 2.87.

Compressive Strength: During compression at age 28 days, the Abakaliki sample has the highest strength with the value of 26.45N/mm2.

Generally, based on investigation, Abakaliki and Lokpanta samples tests and results are suitable for heavy construction while Otanmiri sample can be used for low load bearing constructions.

6.2 Recommendations

Based on the investigation, study, tests and analysis of results obtained, I recommend that:

  1. For less load bearing constructions, Otanmiri sample can be used.
  2. For heavy construction work, Abakaliki and Lokpanta samples, which show high resistance to load, should be used.
  3. The water absorption value of an aggregate should not be a criteria for selecting the suitability of aggregate because aggregate may not satisfy a water absorption limit but yet has a good resistance or strength required.

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