A Comparative Study On Teaching Practice Experiences Of Home Economics Student-Teachers; Challenges And Possible Panacea

Project and Seminar Material for Home Economics

A Comparative Study On Teaching Practice Experiences Of Home Economics Student-Teachers; Challenges And Possible Panacea


Abstract


Teaching practice experience is an important component of becoming a teacher. It grants student-teachers experience in the actual teaching and learning environment (Ngidi & Sibaya, 2013; Perry, 2014). During teaching practice, a student-teacher is given the opportunity to try the art of teaching in his field of study be it in computer science or any other subject before actually getting into the real world of the teaching profession (Kasanda, 2011). Student-teachers also know the value of teaching practice as remarked by Menter (2010). According to Menter, they perceive it as ‘the crux of their preparation for the teaching profession’ since it provides for the ‘real interface ‘between student hood and membership of the profession


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

A student teacher reflected that the practical component of teacher training – practice teaching – was a part of the course fraught with difficulty and thus exceedingly stressful. She did not appear to enjoy the experience. This student teacher’s experience identifies her own feelings around practice teaching. This anecdotal reference serves to position the research question as both relevant and constructive in terms ofthe ongoing research around teacher training in South Africa. Many problems confront teachers who enter the workplace for the first time after completing their studies. Student teachers who qualify from our current teacher training programmes are not always ready to enter the classroom. These problems are related to their practice teaching experiences, a conclusion that may be deduced from the researcher’s own professional dealings with student teachers. One gets the impression that some student teachers are inadequately prepared for the real situation during their practice teaching. Research conducted by Tang (2003) found the quality of student teachers’ learning experiences in the field to be a major concern. Converting theoretical knowledge into practice will always remain a challenge – learning to teach is a complex process (Solomon, Worthy & Carter as cited in Farrell, 2002). In support ofthese views, many researchers have written about the ‘shock of reality’, a phrase referring to the difficulty of shifting from theoretical training and academic knowledge to the actual work ofteaching (Johnston, Rastoy, Holdaway & Friesen as cited in Bertone, Meard, Euzet, Ria & Durand, 2003). Research undertaken in 1999 by the United States Department of Education’s National Centre for Education Statistics shows that only one in five teachers feels 1 ! well prepared to work in a modem classroom (Thomas & Loadman, 2001:195). Supporting this finding, French researchers alsD fDcused on the limitatiDns ofpractical experience (Charlie & Durand as cited in Bertone et aI., 2003). On the other hand, Borlo and Mayfield (as cited in Bertone et aI., 2003) found that practical experience can alsD be of great value in learning how to teach. curriculum, including various outputs and inputs related to teacher quality such as professional development experiences, adequate planning periods, and adequate content preparation of teachers with regard to content knowledge associated with the curriculum taught (Huntley, 1998; Knudson, 1937; Leung, 2006; Palmer, 1991; Southern Region Education Board, 1998). Other researchers have examined the relationship between teacher quality and teacher retention (Ingersoll, 2000; National Center for Education Statistics, 1996), and national organizations have defined minimum content preparation standards to improve teaching and learning (Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium [ITASC], 2008; National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Educators [NCATE], 2007; National Middle School Association [NMSA], 2008). This study examines factors related to teacher quality inputs (i.e., coursework, grade point average, and teacher test scores). Okorie (1986) stated that, education is a part of life, which is deliberately controlled and experiences developed according to a conscious plan. According to Emereole (2000), it is usually planned according to the individual and societal needs and the most veritable instrument for change in any society. Therefore, the quality of education provided in any society and the nature of the change affected by that education are both dependable on the quality of teachers and the affected by that education are both dependable on the quality of teachers and the effectiveness of their teachings in schools (Awotua-Efebo, 1999). Kizlik (2007) posits that, education is a means to cooperative dynamic and life long process through which a society deliberately generates knowledge, skills, values and other form of behavior for its survival and sustenance, and transmits these from one generation to another. Asuru (2000) observed that, it is pertinent to note that the individual countries of the world provide education for their citizens for different reasons. According to Adagba (2005), the reasons are the different ways, which these countries believe that they would help the citizens as human being and their country as a Nation. Akpomi (2010) also stressed that, the Government of Nigeria in her aim to achieve their philosophy of education has therefore set up an implementation committee for the National Policy of Education in 1983, knowing fully that, the important of teaching practice and internship in teaching education cannot be overemphasize, the committee therefore recommends: Those methods of training teachers need to be rationalized, so that they reflect the Nation’s, Education philosophy, policies and structure. That massive training of untrained primary school teachers should be done by the method on the job training. The selection and training of lead teacher who will provide personal instruction to teacher, trainee and supervise them well.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, teacher- training institutions have been critiqued for inability to produce teachers who are properly grounded in pedagogy and content as well as ability to collaborate professionally in the work environment. For example, educationists observed that the transition from academic theories in universities to classroom practice has often been very sharp suggesting that student teachers are not often properly groomed to put into practice current pedagogy and interactive skills that has been theoretically learnt. Whereas, the National Policy on Education, (FGN 1981 revised 1998 and 2004:40) states ‘teachers shall be regularly exposed to innovations in their profession.’ The teaching practice exercise in many educational institutions had become rife with complaints of drudgery among staff and students and consequently frustration on the part of both of them. (Imogie 1998). It was in view of the stated reasons as well as the need for teachers to address new challenges in education, both at the national and global levels that the Faculty of Education of a Nigerian university restructured the Teaching Practice exercise in line with its position on Teaching Practice. “Students Teaching Practice Log Book” recently adopted by the faculty:

The training of teachers involve more than giving them the knowledge and skills necessary for good teaching. We are aware that, for teachers, what goes on inside the classroom is closely related to what goes on outside. The quality of teaching is closely influenced by the professional growth of teachers and the relationship with their colleagues, either as supportive communities who work together in pursuit of common goals and continuous improvement or as individuals. It is in view of the above that prompt the researcher to investigate teaching practice experience of Home Economics students teachers in Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to ascertain teaching practice experience of Home Economics students teachers, but to aid the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives;

  1. To investigate relationship between problem faced by student teacher during teaching practices and their performance.
  2. To investigate relationship between classroom management challenges facing student-teachers and their performance.
  3. To investigate relationship between the challenges faced by student-teachers form their supervisors and their performance.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

To aid the successful completion of the study, the researcher the researcher therefore formulates the following hypotheses;

  1. H0: There is no significant relationship between problem faced by student teacher during teaching practices and their performance
    H1: There is a significant relationship between problem faced by student teacher during teaching practices and their performance
  2. H02: There is no significant relationship between classroom management challenges facing student-teachers and their performance
    H2: There is a significant relationship between classroom management challenges facing student-teachers and their performance
  3. H03: There is no significant relationship between the challenges faced by student-teachers form their supervisors and their performance.
    H3: There is a significant relationship between the challenges faced by student-teachers form their supervisors and their performance

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the federal ministry of education, who are saddle with the responsibility of formulating and implementation of educational policy formulated by her or the House committee on education of the higher and lower chamber of the legislators, the study will also be of great importance to faculty of education in respective higher institutions in the country as the findings will proffer way out of the dwindling teaching practice program. The study will also be useful to researchers who intends to embark on a research in a similar topic as the study will serve as a spring board for further study


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers teaching practice experience of Home Economics students teachers. But in the cause of the study, there were some factors which militate against the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Teaching Practice

Teaching practice is a key influence on student learning – a desired outcome and primary goal of higher educational institutions.

Student Teacher

A student teacher, pupil-teacher or prac teacher is a college, university or graduate student who is teaching under the supervision of a certified teacher in order to qualify for a degree in education

Teaching:

The act of giving out instruction for the purpose of imparting knowledge from one person to another or a group of people.

Learning:

Learning means to gain knowledge of skill by study.

Teaching Practice:

Teaching practice is the training for teaching or any education work are engaged in a specified period of time on graduation under a supervisor or supervisor guiding, directing and assessing trainee teacher.

Student Teacher:

This is a student still undergoing teachers’ education, which is being sent out to school as part of his or her training in the college.

Supervisor:

Supervisor is described as college or university lecturer (trained teacher) who is responsible for coordinating the student teachers while teaching and monitor the students during teaching practice.

Cooperating Teacher:

Cooperating teacher guide the students teacher while on the teaching practices

School Management:

Control the affaire of school both students and teacher


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the impact of teaching practice experience of Home Economics student’s teachers

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges teaching practice experience of Home Economics students teachers.


5.2 Summary

Teaching practice has been found to be very beneficial in the course of this research work because, it provides an opportunity for the trainee teachers to teach and increase their professional competence. The result showed that trainee teachers benefited greatly in participating in teaching practice because they were able to build proper confidence and competence in lesson preparation and developed skills and attitude of a teacher during the exercise. It was also revealed that teaching practice helps trainee teachers to learn how to keep records of assignment and also participating in school activities. Therefore we recommended that the government should provide finance inform of stipend for trainee teachers and teachers engaged in teaching practice programmed.


5.3 Conclusion

The trend toward professionalizing teaching makes it imperative that teachers should be well grounded in the rudiments of the trade and aided to continuously improve themselves during and after training, hence the need for collaborative school environment and reflective teaching by teachers and student teachers in particular. The conclusions that can be drawn from this study are: student teachers were elated with the practice of reflective teaching; reflective teaching tend to promote the professional growth of teachers; student teachers were mainly preoccupied with teaching responsibilities; staff of partnership schools did not provide specific professional support to student teachers and consequently failed to perform their roles as mentors; Faculty perceived student teachers as being more effective in the knowledge of subject matter than the application of pedagogy.


5.4 Recommendations

Haven completed the study, the researcher recommends that a proper orientation for trainee teachers should be carried out using efficient means of communication like; seminars, workshops, conferences and discussion. Faculties of education and college should organize the exercise very will so as to give the best professional practice to the trainee teachers. Institutional resource centers of the various institutions should be adequately equipped and expanded enable every trainee teacher participates at least once or twice in micro-teaching exercise as a way of exposing them to practice teaching. The university should appeal to non-governmental organizations like the private sector, individuals and industries to assist in supplementing educational materials and learning resource that would prepare the students


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