A Comparative Study On Student’s Preference For News And Musical Programme On Radio

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

A Comparative Study On Student’s Preference For News And Musical Programme On Radio


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

To The history of radio began almost 30 years before Maxceni with Cambridge professor called James Clark Maxwell through he had never seen or experience radio wave, Maxwell successfully forecast most of laws that govern their propagation,. Calculating their speed and noting their resemblance to light waves.

Maxwell showed how radio waves could be reflected, absorbed and focused like the beam a torch and could change the very nature of object on which them have focused.

Hardly anybody believed Maxwell in 1864, Pro. David hughed walked up Portland place with device that caught the sound of radio wave.

In 1887, German scientist Heinrich Hertz carried out a famous set of experiments that proved Maxwell had been right all along, and in 1894, the British scientist Oliver lodge succeeded in transmitting wireless signal over 150yards.

The U.S.S.R. celebrates radio day on May 7th to mark a demonstration made by Alexander in 1875. The popularity of radio represents on the spot reports of news events soon rise and radio networking started in united state in 1926.Radio broadcasting came to Nigeria in stages in the measure of history. its growth has been an instaneous and rapid as its function.

The introduction of wired broadcasting was more popularly known as “Radio Distribution” or “Rediffusion”. It was a service which provided for the relay or distribution of programmes by means of subscriber.
According to OduLadele, in his book, history of Nigeria Broadcasting corporation said that a radio distribution service does not usually originate programme. For this reason, it was been regarded as the forerunner of wireless broadcasting system in most common wealth countries. In 1932, a receiving station was constructed in Lagos at the initiative of the engineers of the post and telegraph departments in Lagos who had been involved in monitoring the test transmission of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) on short waves.

On December 1, 1936 the wired broadcast service was commissioned in Lagos. It was known as the Radio Distribution Service (R.D.S). Initially, BBC programme were reported on a daily basis. In 1948, a short wave transmitter was installed to relay the Lagos R.D.S programme operating under the call sign “Radio Nigeria”.

The picture gradually changed when the N.B.C took over from the P and T on April 1, 1952 and the Nigerian Broadcasting Service went on air. The second phase in Nigeria was ushered in with the commencement of Nigeria Broadcasting Service with the Nigerian Broadcasting House at Ikoyi, Lagos.

The main line of duty of R.D.S was of course to relay, aside of the local programmes, featuring news entertainment and local announcements.

The year 1954, also witnessed the opening of regional stations in Ibadan, Enugu and Kaduna in line with the constitutional provisions of Macpherson constitution which makes the decentralization of Radio broadcasting and which made broadcasting a concurrent subject and allowed regional government to establish their own broadcasting stations.

While the last phase of development of radio broadcasting in the country could be said to have ended with establishment of the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation in 1957.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The study is to determine the factors influencing students preference for news or musical programmes on Radio, the case study of Federal Radio Corporation Of Nigeria (FRCN). To know the impact of radio among the listeners especially the students.Also, to determine the rate at which students pay attention to news or musical programmes than other programmes on radio. What is the relevance of these programmes to the lifestyle of these students. Radio as a medium of communication, does it hold great potential in terms of supporting students who are learning?

Moreover, what are the roles or programming in the radio broadcasting? All these are the radio identified problems of the study that the researcher will find solution to


1.3 Statement Of Objective

The study aims is to test the characteristics of radio listeners especially students on this following;

  1. To identify the percentage of those that have interest in News programme alone.
  2. To identify the percentage of those that have interest in history to News or musical.
  3. To identify the percentage those that listen to all the programmes on radio.
  4. To know the number of those that have passion for musical program.
  5. To determine the rate of people value radio as a way of interacting.
  6. To be able to known the reason why other programs lack public interest or if it is just matter of choice.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

To aid the completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher:

  1. H0: the percentage those that listen to all the programs on radio are low.
    H1: the percentage those that listen to all the programs on radio are high.
  2. H02: most students are not passionate about musical programs
    H2: most students are passionate about musical programs

1.5 Significance Of The Study

At the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the management of radio channels as the study seek to enumerate the importance haring a student’s friendly programs in Nigeria as this will increase their customers base, the study will also be of great importance tothe student to take advantage of student friendly radio programs in the metropolis. The study will also be of importance to researchers who intend to embark on study in similar topic, finally the study will be of importance to student teachers and the general public as the study will add to the pool of literature already available.


1.6 Scope And Limitation Of The Study

The scope of the study covers comprehensive study on students preference for news and musical programs on radio. But in the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study:

(a) Availability of research material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

(b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

(c) Finance:

The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.


1.7 Definition Of Terms

Radio program

A radio program or radio show is a segment of content intended for broadcast on radio. It may be a one-time production or part of a periodically recurring series. A single program in a series is called an episode.

News

News is information about current events. Journalists provide news through many different media, based on word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electronic communication, and also on their own testimony, as witnesses of relevant events

Radio

Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form.


1.8 Organization Of The Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc.
  • Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.
  • Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was a comparative study on students preference for news and musical programs on radio.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of student preference for news and musical programs.


5.2 Summary

The research from this study shows that students are not aware of on-campus FM; students are listening to music and other programming on portable devices, and they prefer to have greater control over the content they receive. Currently Blaze FM has 45 moved away from the block format into what Taylor describes as checkerboard programming, saying, “now it depends on the scheduling of the jocks. Daniel station manager at the timewould schedule two-hour blocks in junction with what the jocks preferred during the day.” (Taylor, 2012). With students’ preferring to listen on their portable devices and demanding control of their content, clearly Blaze FM needs to shift its focus to converging with new media technologies online. It is the author’s suggestion that, in order for on-campus FM to begin its transformation into a more digital era and in order to satisfy the needs of on-campus students and the outlying community as well, the starting point is to rebuild leadership of the station first either by creating more time for the faculty advisor to be more hands-on with the station or bringing in a non-student as general manager, who can dedicate the necessary time to the station and give it the attention it desperately needs, along with generating fresh leadership goals and a new vision for on-campus FM in assessing and solving the current issues. They have been identified, the participants have voiced their opinions, and now is time to implement change and fulfill the third phase of action research.


5.3 Conclusion

On-campus FM is very limited in what the station currently offers its student audience while seeking to be the source of their gratifications. Its frequency radius only stretches to each end of the campus and a few surrounding blocks. This limitation affects the station’s ability to service the outlying community. Until a replacement tower can be put into place, the signal will continue to be limited to on-campus residents. This study intended to examine on-campus students’ listening habits and their level of awareness of On-campus FM. With this information, this study used the framework of the uses and gratifications approach in discovering what On-campus FM could offer students to draw their attention and fulfill their gratifications. In this study, it was mentioned that Hulsink (2005) saw the emergence of new communication technologies not as replacements for traditional media such as radio, but that the new communication technologies both compliment and compete with traditional media. In this regard, the new media technologies such as Internet streaming, podcasts, and even applications for mobile devices would benefit On-campus FM and all are viable options for On-campus FM to offer students.


5.4 Recommendations

This study has explored the on-campus students’ listening habits and level of awareness of On-Campus FM through survey analysis and has discovered solutions for On-campus FM in increasing its listening audience through focus group analysis. Together, both methods of research have provided vital information for the campus station. With the information from this study, benchmarks can now be set by the author in reviewing suggestions for future station managers of On-campus FM.

Financially, On-campus FM is limited to a budget determined by the Student Activity Fee Budget Committee of an annual amount equivalent to $2,500 (The Constitution of On-campus FM. 2017). A higher fraction of this budget should be used to fulfill apparent need for promotion. Earlier it was mentioned in an interview with Taylor (2012) that marketing tools such as painted sheets, fliers, and leaflets should be distributed amongst the students. Some of the budget should also be used for contests, giveaways, or concerts as methods to establish awareness.


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