Comparative Study Of Social Media And Radio Stations Preference For Assessing News Among Youths

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Comparative Study Of Social Media And Radio Stations Preference For Assessing News Among Youths


Abstract


Empirical studies have explored the relationship between news gratifications sought and news gratifications obtained in the online media and in the conventional media. Previous studies have rarely compared between the extent to which news gratifications sought are obtanied in the conventional media and the extent to which the news gratifications are sought and obtained in the online media. Through a qualitative approach, this study employs a uses and gratifications approach to compare how news gratifications are sought and obtained in both the online and conventional media.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

More than a century ago, communication between countries involved physical presence. Once, a reporter had to run as fast as possible back to the newsroom after interviewing and tried to beat the competition to print. With the advent of the digital age the role of the journalist changed.

The inception of information communication technology such as the internet has made it possible to find out about events without actually being there. Journalists can report news across the world over the internet.

Throughout history, developments in technology and communication have gone hand-in-hand, and the latest technological developments such as the internet have resulted in the advancement of the science of communication to a new level. The process of human communication has evolved over the years, with many path-breaking inventions and discoveries heralding revolutions. The invention of pictographs or the first written communication in the ancient world brought about written communication. These writings were on stones, and remained immovable. The invention of paper, papyrus and wax, culminating in the invention of the printing press in the 15th century made possible transfer of documents from one place to another, allowing for uniformity of languages over long distances. Lawal, A.T. (2005). The latest revolution is the widespread application of electronic technology such as electronic waves and signals to communicate, manifesting in the electronic creation and transfer of documents over the World Wide Web (www.wikipediacom) Social media which are forms of electronic communication have become the highest activity on the internet. They refer to social networking websites developed to specifically to help people share their views and stay in touch with their friends, relatives and well- wishers. The site was popular for a while but it suffered from technical difficulties and fake profiles and began losing members. Some of those members went to MySpace, which had actually started in 1999 but became better known in 2003.Its roots are a little muddy because it received financial and logistical support from another company called e-Universe, and most of the early users were e-Universe employees but Tom Anderson and Chris DeWolfe are given credit for much of the innovations and success of the site which built up to 115 million users worldwide. Members post bios, photos, blogs, videos, and other things that strike their fancy, and some Radio programmes to air on MySpace. In 2005, Rupert Murdoch‟s News Corporation (parent of Fox Broadcasting) bought MySpace for 580 million dollars. and the other camp comprising of those who believe that the relationship is supplementary and complementary as the old news platforms are still surviving in the news circle. Even as at 2011, the debate was still raging. The lack of clear pattern on the relationship between the old and new news media as news sources was what prompte to recommend that in the study of news consumption, there is need for a shift away from the traditional theoretical and methodological approaches which often treat media features and social practices separately.

For instance, uses and gratifications approach to the study of news consumption in both the old and the new media can serve as a better theoretical approach in the effort to get a clearer pattern of the relationship between the old and new media as news outlets because media ‘users goals and interests have more concern to them than the media attributes. Media scholars have responded to this challenge by exploring the uses and gratifications of news in the old and new media. explored the motivations for using social media for news among university students and found information seeking, socialising and status seeking to be the motivations of the social media users for sharing news. In their own study of why people use the websites for political information identified guidance, entertainment/social utility, convenience and information (seeking) as motives. While examining how college students get hooked to news, found internet to be one of the media that surveillance gratification is positively correlated with. In their own study, found YouTube users to seek leisure and entertainment gratifications when they watch comedy news video while they seek information gratification in traditional news video. Empirical studies have also explored how old, conventional media are used for news. Information seeking/surveillance and Para-social gratifications have frequently been associated with conventional television news. In his study of media involvement and local news effects, found local news to be primarily linked to information seeking and Para-social gratifications.

Similarly, in, Taiwanese news consumers found radio news to be a good source of surveillance gratifications. In some other studies, local radio news provides a mixture of information and entertainment gratifications to viewers. This is because its news reports on such core issues as politics; crime and disasters are often mixed with ‘human and local interest stories and newscaster appeal to provide lighthearted respites from hard news. In their own study, found television news to positively relate to only escapism gratifications. News in the printed Newspaper is commonly associated with cognitive needs of the readers while found information seeking and entertainment gratifications to predict the use of radio for news. The conclusion is that news gratifications, relative to the media, are not mutually inclusive. They seem to differ only in degrees.

Similarly, Twitter is an online social networking service and microblogging service that enables its users to send and read text-based messages of up to 140 characters, known as “tweets”. Olayinka, S. O. (2014)


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Social media have certainly changed the way journalists work, how stories are developed and disseminated. Social media or online journalism places far more power in the hands of the users allowing the reader to challenge the traditional role of information dissemination. Traditional media have been forced to adopt the new media from wider reach and accessibility. This necessitated the study comparative study of social media and radio stations preference for assessing news among youth


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to compare the preference for news assessment between social media and radio station among the youth;

But to aid the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives;

  1. To ascertain the impact of social media on news reportage
  2. To examine the effect of social media reporting on the listenership of radio broadcasting
  3. To ascertain if there is any relationship between social media reporting and radio reportage
  4. To examine the role of social media in restructuring news reporting in Nigeria

1.4 Research Hypotheses

  1. H0: social media does not have any significant impact on news reportage in Nigeria
    H1: social media does have a significant impact on news reportage in Nigeria
  2. H02: there is no significant relationship between social media reporting and radio reportage
    H2: there is a significant relationship between social media reporting and radio reportage

1.5 Significance of the Study

Fundamentally, it is essential we understand current usage and behaviour and identify potential problems so that they can bead dressed. This can be seen in the amount of academic studies on social media within the last seven years. However, Danah Boyd has gathered a collection of research about social networking sites that lists approximately one hundred and fifty research papers, three books, and seven research reports published in the years 2003-2010. (Boyd, 2010) None of these papers covers Africa. This shows a lack of research that concerns the African region and especially Nigeria where this form of media is greatly used. Therefore the overall motivation for conducting this study is to contribute to research about social media in Nigeria. This research should also create a platform for further research in this field and how it affects business processes as well other spheres of life. This research should provide useful data for market researchers, marketing and product development professionals as well as educators as to how they can maximize social media for optimum benefit in their various fields.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers comparative study of social media and radio station preference for assessing news among youth. In the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study;

Although this study has accomplished the purpose, which is set out to achieve, one of the very limitations is that the validity of the results or findings is depending on the honest of the respondents in providing the needed information.

Due to constraints of time and money, it is difficult to carry out the research extensively. This led to the limiting of the scope.

Cognizance was also taken to the fact that the academic calendar was too short and academic workload was enormous, as a result of this, no time to run around for the work.


1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

Social Media:

A group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content. (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010).

Social Skills:

Any skills facilitating interaction and communication with others. Social rules and relations are created, communicated and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways through a process called socialization.

Cyberspace:

This is the electronic medium of computer networks, in which online communication takes place.

Blogs:

A blog (a contraction of the term “web log”) is a type of website, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order

Radio Station:

A radio station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves.

Generally, it is a receiver or transmitter, an antenna, and some smaller additional equipment necessary to operate them


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is pertinent to note that the objective of this study was on a comparative study of social media and radio station preference for assessing news among the youth.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of social media and radio preference as a source of information among the youth.


5.2 Summary

it is no doubt that radio plays a very significant role in the lives of young people, as it informs, educates and entertains its audience, and information derived from radio is used for decision making, logical argument, and more. Therefore radio broadcasters are regarded as credible sources of knowledge dispensers and should endeavor to always give information based on facts, so that their audience would not be misled. Also, radio stations should continue to perform the functions of the media, which is to inform, educate, entertain, among others, because respondents have agreed that radio plays a significant role in their lives.


5.3 Conclusion

From the findings of this study, it has been revealed that youths’ use of the social media is not a threat to their use of the traditional mass media generally, because the former create links where the users could access the latter. However, it was found out that the youths use less of the social media links to access radio and television stations than they use newspapers and magazines. The result of this study has also shown that Nigerian youths apply the social media to discuss national issues and use the new media to indulge in cybercrimes; however, they do not use the new media to communicate to their leaders. From the findings of the study, useful recommendations were made to the media industries, the government and the academia.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, it is germane that we recommend to newspaper and magazine publishers in Nigeria that:

  1. They devise strategies in their social media links that would redirect the attention of their youth audience to seek hard copies of the magazines or the newspapers after reading the online version. This would enable them make more money from sales.
  2. They should use more of their online versions as channel for advertisements targeted to the youths.
  3. They regulate the age at which certain young people are allowed to use the social media. This suggestion stems from the point that the youths admitted that they use the social media platforms to date. Sequel to this, government has to liaise with social media network providers to create an age barrier restricting Nigerian minors from using the social media until they attain a ripe age of reasoning as provided by the constitution of the country and her other relevant laws. This shall be instrumental toward forestalling pregnancy out of wedlock which is capable of truncating many a youth’s education and future in a country like Nigeria.
  4. They ascertain why the youths do not interact with the country’s leaders through the social media that provide wide rooms for people to be reached especially the young people who use them (social media) more often for interactions.

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