Comparative Study Of Senior Secondary School Physics Students Achievement In Internal And External Examination In Obio Akpor L.G.A

Physics Education Project Material

Comparative Study Of Senior Secondary School Physics Students Achievement In Internal And External Examination In Obio Akpor L.G.A


Abstract


This study was carried out on comparative study of senior secondary school physics students achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area. The study was set to find out whether there is a significant difference in the scores of physics students in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area, investigate whether there is a significant difference between the extent of physics students academic performance in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area, ascertain factors which influences physics students academic achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area, and find whether there is a significant gender difference in students achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area.The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of physics teachers and students of selected secondary schools in Obio Akpor local government area. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores.While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant difference in the scores of physics students in internal and external examination.The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant difference between the extent of physics students academic performance in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area.Therefore, it is recommended that students should be given ample opportunity to study past examinations of external assessment while even in school to get familiar with it. Teachers should be given ample training on the modus operandi of constructing, administering and interpreting school-based examination that is similar to that of external examination. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The role of science in this modern era of technology is wide and profound. In line with this reasoning, Odinko (2014).emphasized the importance of scientific knowledge in boosting national prestige, military might, national income and international rating of the country. According to them, science gives birth to the production of micro computers and their innovative applications which earned the developed countries such as the United States of America and Japan unparalleled national wealth, military potential and enviable national prestige. The development of any nation, which depends on science and technology, hinges on the nation‟s science education. Science education is a distinct form of creative human activity which involves distinct ways of seeing, exploring and understanding reality. Science has become such an indispensable tool that no nation, developed or developing, wishing to progress in the socio-economic sphere will afford to relegate the learning of science in schools to the background. Technological growth of a nation leads to its social and economic development. In the world today science and technology have become a dominant culture factor. America, Russia, Japan and China are typical examples of nations which are now referred to as developed, as a result of their development in the area of Science and Technology.

The contemporary word is driven by science and technology and the two are interrelated. Ogunkola(2017)affirmed that science is the theory upon which the technology is built, without Science; there cannot be intuition for technology. Also, to confirm the assertion, Ojo (2018) claims that while science probes into the question “Why?” technology probes into the “How?” aspect. Physics is among the three major pillars of science (i.e. Physics, Chemistry and Biology). Physics deals with the study of laws that determine the structure of the universe with reference to the matter and energy in the universe. In the words of Odinko (2014)Physics is the most utilized basic science subject in most technology and technology- related profession”. This merely indicates that the enormous role Physics plays in the technological growth of any nation must not be undermined. It is germane to say that the technological growth of a nation leads to its social and economic development.A thorough understanding of mechanics is necessary to chemists and material scientists since the structure of every atom in the universe is determined by mechanics.

Physics is also a cross-cutting discipline that has applications in many sectors of economic development, including health, agriculture, water energy and information technology [. There is no doubt that a good part of the scientific knowledge is derived from the principles of Physics. Indeed, the knowledge of Physics has led to so many inventions such as the production, application and utilization of integrated circuits, production and use of machines and other contrivances. It also accounts for the discovery and production of hydroelectric power, gas turbine and thermonuclear power plant, telephones, refrigerators, heaters and cookers. The invention of modern technologies such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which has made the world a global village is also part of the benefits of Physics and many other benefits. The importance of Physics for the development of a nation is, therefore, glaring.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In the Nigerian educational system, internal and external examinations have been the two modes of examination of students’ performance in secondary schools. Different researchers have revealed the strengths and weaknesses of each of these examination modes including Odinko (2014), Asuru (2017), Grima (2012), and Anthony (2018). It is also recommended that school-based examination scores in any subject for a particular student should reflect his or her achievement in the external examinations. Obviously, some researchers such as Opara, Onyekuru and Njoku (2015) investigated on school-based examination scores as predictors of students’ final grades in Rivers and Delta states respectively and found out that school-based examination scores predicted students’ performances in JSSCE mathematics and integrated science respectively. Tarnum, Obinne and Achulogy (2016) also did a comparative study of students mean performance in school-based examination and certificate examination in Benue state and reported that the students performed well in both school-based examination and external examination reflected in WASSCE and NECO. Some other studies found out that the students’ score in the school-based examination is significantly higher than their scores in certificate examinations. To the best of these researchers’ knowledge, most of the studies in this regard were carried out in other parts of the nation and has not been done in recent times in the senior secondary schools in Rivers State. In view of this, there is a need to carry out a more critical study with more current data to have current empirical facts on the mean performance of students in internal and external examinations in our secondary schools. Consequent upon this, the researchers, therefore, deemed it necessary to carry out a comparative study of students’ performance in school-based examination and certificate examinations at the senior secondary schools in Obio-Akpor Local government Area of Rivers State, to ascertain if there is a difference in the mean performance of students in 2018/2019 school-based examination and external examination (WAEC and NECO).


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to examine conduct a comparative study of senior secondary school physics students achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor L.G.A.

Other specific objectives includes:

  1. Find out whether there is a significant difference in the scores of physics students in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area?
  2. Investigate whether there is a significant difference between the extent of physics students academic performance in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area.
  3. Ascertain factors which influences physics students academic achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area.
  4. Find whether there is a significant gender difference in students achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Is there a significant difference in the scores of physics students in internal and external examination?
  2. Is there a significant difference between the extent of physics students academic performance in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area.
  3. What are the factors which influences physics students academic achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area?
  4. Is there a significant gender difference in students achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant gender difference in students achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area.
  • Ho: There is a significant gender difference in students achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Findings of the study will be of significant importance to policy makers, teachers and science student in senior secondary school. As it is often recognized in policy documents, the study will emphasized on the need for performance in school-based examination to be integrated into the grading and examination framework of external extermination. The study will enable Students to be given ample opportunity to study past examinations of external examination while even in school to get familiar with it. Through the study, teachers would be given ample training on the modus operandi of constructing, administering and interpreting school-based examination that is similar to that of external examination. Empirically, the study will add to the general body of knowledge and serve as a reference material to student and teachers who seeks to conduct further studies in related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on comparative study of senior secondary school physics students achievement in internal and external examination. The study is however delimited to the senior secondary three (SS3) students who wrote WAEC and NECO 2018/2019 academic session in public and approved private schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Comparative:

Measured or judged by estimating the similarity or dissimilarity between one thing and another; relative

Analysis:

Detailed examination of the elements or structure of something

Performance:

The extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved.

Physics:

Physics is the branch of science that deals with the structure of matter and how the fundamental constituents of the universe interact. It studies objects ranging from the very small using quantum mechanics to the entire universe using general relativity.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on comparative study of senior secondary school physics students achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on comparative study of senior secondary school physics students achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area.The study was specifically set tofind out whether there is a significant difference in the scores of physics students in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area, investigate whether there is a significant difference between the extent of physics students academic performance in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area, ascertain factors which influences physics students academic achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area, and find whether there is a significant gender difference in students achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are physicsteachers and students of selected secondary schools in Obio Akpor local government area.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant difference in the scores of physics students in internal and external examination.
  2. There is a significant difference between the extent of physics students academic performance in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area.
  3. The factors which influences physics students academic achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area includes; teachers effectiveness, ineffective teaching strategy, students’ poor attitude towards physics, and poor reading habit.
  4. There is a significant gender difference in students achievement in internal and external examination in Obio Akpor local government area.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Students should be given ample opportunity to study past examinations of external assessment while even in school to get familiar with it.
  2. Teachers should be given ample training on the modus operandi of constructing, administering and interpreting school-based examination that is similar to that of external examination.
  3. The problems of students poor performance would be reduced when teachers who are competent and qualified are employed and who also would adopt the use of instructional materials.
  4. School proprietors’ should as a matter of policy, purchase instructional aids which should be used by the teachers in their teaching of the student. If all these are done, they will go a long way in solving the problem of poor performance of students in biology.
  5. Students should work to change their attitude towards biology teachers can help in encouraging the learner by giving relevant examples.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What grade do you like physics in Senior High School?

There is no quicker way to learn about Physics in Senior High School – Grades 11 and 12 Hands up all those who like physics. Physics is such a wide and weird subject, we reckon there’s something to amaze and delight practically everyone.

What is the HS physics syllabus?

The senior high school (SHS) physics syllabus has as its first general aim, “to provide, through well designed studies of experimental and practical physics, worthwhile hands on educational experience to become well informed and productive citizens.”

How many SHS physics students provide the information needed for research?

In all, 432 SHS physics students provided the required information that was analysed to make the conclusions in this study. The main research instrument used was a well-structured student questionnaire.

How do students use physics in their daily life?

About 72.5 % of the students reported that they used formulas and laws of physics to solve problems in almost every lesson. A high proportion of students (80.6 %) had understanding of practical lessons in mechanics. This was followed by light (75.4 %), heat (72.4 %) and sound (57.5 %).

What are the different kinds of examinations conducted in secondary schools?

There are two kinds of examinations conducted in secondary schools. One kind is the graduation test. Every student is required to pass examinations for the following ten subjects in order to graduate from secondary school: Chinese, mathematics, foreign language, physics, chemistry, political study, history, geography, computer science, and biology.

What are the subjects required to graduate from secondary school?

Every student is required to pass examinations for the following ten subjects in order to graduate from secondary school: Chinese, mathematics, foreign language, physics, chemistry, political study, history, geography, computer science, and biology.

Which subjects are tested in the college entrance examination?

In the college entrance examination, humanities students are tested in history and political study. Science students are tested in physics and chemistry. All students are also required to take examinations in Chinese, mathematics, and a foreign language regardless of their future majors. 

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