A Comparative Study On The Performance Of Government-Owned And Private-Owned Broadcasting Media Organizations

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

A Comparative Study On The Performance Of Government-Owned And Private-Owned Broadcasting Media Organizations


Abstract


This research work is aimed at finding the journalist that is freer between those in private and government owned media organizations, using Ray- power and SPLASH FM Enugu as a focus, to achieve maximum and accurate findings. The researcher made use of survey design. To gather necessary information, copies of questionnaire were administered and retrieved from the respondents who were randomly selected and also personal interview was conducted, the findings show that the journalists in government owned media organizations are freer than those in privately owned media organizations. The researcher also made some recommendations based on the findings of the research. That more opportunities should be given to the journalists in private owned media i.e. they should be allowed to broadcast what they see or the information they get as long as it is proven to be true. Since it has been identified that source credibility is essential in broadcasting, as it affects the audience believe, so both government and private owned journalists should be given equal rights to broadcast what they see and how it was seen without limit and threats


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The term mass media according to McQuail [2000] is shortened to describe a means of communication that operates on a large scale reaching and involving virtually everyone in a society to a greater or lesser degree. Media is plural of medium which means a channel or vehicle through which something is transmitted. In other words, mass media are channels of communication in a modern society, primarily the print and the electronic media. MCQuail further describes the mass media as the organized many receivers within a short space of time. The mass media are impersonal communication sources that reach large audiences. The primary function of the mass media system is to provide information to several millions of people. The mass media are extremely influential. Each of the media is presumed tom affect perceptions and behaviour in a distinctive way. They can affect the society and vice versa. The mass media are the uniquely modern means of public communication and much of their importance lies in the fact that they are a major cause of whatever modes of perception, thought, public discourse and political action. Because of their size and the larger number of people they reach the mass media tremendous impact on society. Murphy (1977) sums up societal impacts of the media in different way as oil, give and dynamite. As oil, Murphy asserts that media of communication keep the world running smoothly by helping individuals adjust to the reality of lives. They keep society on and healthy by suggesting solutions that are socially acceptable.

As given, social cohesion is maintained by communication. Murphy contends that the media give all of us including strangers, something to talk about by setting agenda of discussion. And that over the years, communication builds up and reinforces the fabrics that hold a society together. Murphy also describes the mass media as dynamites that can rip the society apart. A good example of this is the propaganda campaigns that preceded the Russian revolution in 1917 and Hitler‟s rise to the German chancellorship in 1933. Similarly, the mass media particularly the newspaper and magazine played a tremendous role in the struggle for Nigeria‟s independence in 1960.


1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

Ownership of the media house, its control and recruitment of its principal staff have formed the influential factors consequent upon the programme quality of the media house since the owner(s) of the media house usually determine the aforementioned factor. The media ownership have in some ways influenced the media programmes and this has posed problems to journalism as a trade.

In this case, the broadcast media have to function in tune with the whims and caprices of the owner(s). Nothing runs the broadcast media practitioner down as having the option of either following the dictates of the owners or face the bitter music of being sacked. Ownership influence on programme content have made many broadcast media outfit to collapse in operations and have also made them to lose their audience grip. This is mostly true of government owned broadcast media.

After the liberation of media industry by General Ibrahim Babangida’s administration in 1992, many privately – owned broadcast media started springing out from all corners, one of which is BCOS radio Station.

These new privately owned media stations produced standard programmes that out bids that of the government – owned media stations and as a result, many people tend to abandoned government owned broadcasting media. The problem now is; why and to what extent has the majority of the citizenry abandoned government owned media?


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of the study include:

  1. To establish whether the government owned media are free to operate in a democratic government like the privately owned media.
  2. To check the rationale for the preference, the audience have for one medium over another.
  3. To find out which of the media establishment is more development oriented.
  4. To ascertain the level of ownership influence on both media outfits in terms of staffing and programming.
  5. To establish the audience perception on both media outfits.
  6. To compare the government owned media with privately owned media using SPLASH FM and Raypower as study focus.
  7. To provide veritable data for further study in this area of review.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will help other researchers in carrying out a similar study. It will add to the mass communication literature and bulk of knowledge on media performance in Nigeria. The study will help to analyze the pattern of media ownership and its influence on Nigerian development. Finally, it will provide the premise for individuals and stakeholders to make decisions on which form of media ownership is better for Nigeria.


1.5 Research Questions

  1. Does the emergence of private broadcasting media in Nigeria improve broadcasting generally?
  2. To what extent is the entrance of private broadcasting a challenge to government owned broadcast media in Nigeria?
  3. Does source credibility affect broadcast media listenership?
  4. To what extent do the Enugu radio listenership prefer private radio programmes to government radio programmes?
  5. To what extent does the radio listenership use what they hear from radio?

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The aim of this study is to investigate the climate of press freedom in both private public media organizations. Other aspects of the media field are not included in the study. In theoretical part, the study analysis partly te relationship between press freedom and the media ownership between structures both in public and private organization, other elements of media strategy are not included. The study does not deal with the detail operative level of media company‟s activities. In addition, it does not have any certain geographic area it would concentrate on.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Airtime:

Starting time of TV to radio programme.

Freelance:

An unaffiliated writer, photographer, cameraman, artist or other person who is available on assignment or contract basis.

Internal Communication:

Communication with personal or members of a company or organisation.

Documentary:

Information film or television show with a unified subject or purpose.

External Publication:

A publication issued by an organisation to people outside its own employee or membership groups, such as to customers, the local community, the financial wild etc.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This is a “comparative study on the performance of government-owned and private owned media broadcasting media organizations”. (A case study of SPLASH FM and Raypower Radio Enugu).

Related literatures were reviewed with emphasis on the historical development of radio broadcasting communication media in Nigeria, National broadcasting Commission and Private ownership of broadcasting history of SPLASH FM and Raypower Radio, audience perception of the media, the role of broadcasting in Nigeria and also the freedom of journalists.

The population of the journalist in SPLASH FM are 75 while those in Raypower are 45 according to the research carried out by the researcher.

The sample size is 150 and all of the 150 questionnaire were given out and received from the respondents. Therefore, 150 questionnaire were used as a measuring instrument.

The data collected through the questionnaire were presented in tables 1 – 13 and analysed.


5.2 Conclusion

In accordance with the test conducted in chapter four, the following conclusion were reached.

The journalist in government owned media are more free than the journalist in private owned media. That the journalist in government owned media to an extent bring more trusted information that those of the private owned, because if they say more than they are allowed to their license can be seized.

Because of this, source credibility affects broadcasting media and the government owned media have more listeners (SPLASH FM) as their journalists are trusted.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the conclusion drawn above, the researcher hereby recommends the following;

  1. That more opportunities should be given to the journalists in private owned media i.e. they should be allowed to broadcast what they see or the information they get as long as it is proven to be true.
  2. Since it has been identified that source credibility is essential in broadcasting, as it affects the audience believe, so both government and private owned journalists should be given equal rights to broadcast what they see and how it was seen without limit and threats.
  3. It is necessary that similar studies on this topic be concluded so that sufficient literature will be made available for comparison in order to reach a concrete position. Since this is dealing with the broadcast media ownership and its performance in Nigeria, further studies on this topic should not be restricted and two, the number of media to be sampled should be increased to generalised the true picture of broadcast media activities in Nigeria.
  4. Enough finance that is money must be made available to the researchers so as to enable them study or sample more media practitioners across the nation.
  5. Further studies should be conducted within sufficient time to make allowance for study‟s findings and objective results.

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