Comparative Study Of Compressive Strengths Of Palm Kernel Shell Concrete Using Different Curing Methods

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

Comparative Study Of Compressive Strengths Of Palm Kernel Shell Concrete Using Different Curing Methods


This study considered comparative study of different methods of curing on compressive strength of concrete using palm kenel shell. Concrete cube specimens of mix 1:1:2 were prepared with water-cement ratio of 0.55. The cubes were cured using four methods (Ponding curing, Sprinkling curing, Wet-curing (Saw dust) and Open-Air curing) for testing ages of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days when their compressive strengths were determined. The results showed that Ponding curing method has the highest compressive strength at 28days curing of 17.07N/mm2, followed by Sprinkling curing of 15.78N/mm2. Wet-curing method has compressive strength of 14.48N/mm2 and Open-air curing has compressive strength of 13.11N/mm2. This shows that there is significant difference in the curing methods.

Table of Content

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Problem Statement
  • 1.2 Aim of the stud
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Justification of the Study
  • 1.5 Scope

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Palm Kernel Shell
  • 2.2 Species of Palm Kernel Shell
  • 2.3 Make-up of Palm Kernel Shell

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Material used
  • 3.1.1 Cement
  • 3.1.2 Water
  • 3.1.3 Fine aggregate
  • 3.2 Methods curing
  • 3.1.1 Ponding Curing
  • 3.1.2 Sprinkling Curing
  • 3.1.3 Wet-covering curing
  • 3.1.4 Totally uncured (Open-air curing)
  • 3.3 Mix design of concrete

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Particle Size Distribution
  • 4.2 Water Absorption
  • 4.3 Specific Gravity
  • 4.4 Slump test
  • 4.5 Compressive strength
  • 4.6 Statistical Analysis of Compressive Strength

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

List of Tables

  • Table 4.1 Particle size distribution of fine aggregate
  • Table 4.2 Particle size distribution of Palm Kernel Shell
  • Table 4.3 Physical Properties of Aggregates
  • Table 4.4 Compressive Strength of PKS at 7days
  • Table 4.5 Compressive Strength of PKS at 14days
  • Table 4.6 Compressive Strength of PKS at 21days
  • Table 4.7 Compressive Strength of PKS at 28days

List of Figures

  • Figure 2.1 Layers of palm kernel fruits
  • Figure 2.2 Palm Kernel
  • Figure 2.3 Palm kernel nuts
  • Figure 4.1 Graph of particle size distribution of fine aggregate
  • Figure 4.2 Graph of particle size distribution of PKS
  • Figure 4.3 Graph of compressive strength at 7days curing
  • Figure 4.4 Graph of compressive strength at 14days curing
  • Figure 4.5 Graph of compressive strength at 21days curing
  • Figure 4.6 Graph of compressive strength at 21days curing

List of Plates

  • Plate 1 Ponding curing method
  • Plate 2 Sprinkling curing method
  • Plate 3 Wet-covering curing (saw dust)
  • Plate 4 Open-Air curing
  • Plate 5 Specific gravity test
  • Plate 6 Slump test

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

To cure Concrete is to provide concrete with adequate moisture and temperature to foster cement hydration for a period of time. Proper curing of concrete is crucial to obtaining design strength and maximum durability, especially for concrete exposed to extreme environmental conditions at an early age (James et al., 2002). (Teo et al., 2006) defined curing as the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from concrete during cement hydration. High curing temperature (up to 212ºF or 100ºC) generally accelerates cement hydration and concrete strength gain at early age. Curing temperature below 50ºF (10ºC) are not desirable for early age strength development. When the curing temperature is below 14ºF (-10ºC) the cement hydration process may cease. Concrete needs to be kept for a longer time in formwork when cast in cold weather condition (ACI Committee 308, 2000).

On the whole, the strength of concrete, its durability and other physical properties are affected by curing and application of the various types as it relates to the prevailing weather condition in a particular locality, as curing is only one of many requirements for concrete production, it is important to study the curing method of palm kernel shell concrete which best adapts to each individual casting process.

The construction industry relies heavily on conventional materials which include cement, crushed rock aggregate and sand or quarry dust for the production of concrete. In the United Kingdom alone, almost 146 million tonnes of sand, gravel and crushed rock aggregates were reportedly mined for construction in 2011 (Department for Communities and Local Government, 2013).

In the light of the above, large quantities of cracked palm kernel shells (PKS) are therefore generated by the producers. Palm kernel shells are obtained after extraction of the palm oil, the nuts are broken and the kernels are removed with the shells mostly left as waste. Palm kernel shells are hard stony endocarps that surround the kernel and the shells come in different shapes and sizes (Alangaram et al., 2008). These shells are mainly of two types the “Dura” and “Tenera”. The Tenera is a hybrid which has specially been developed to yield high oil content and it has a thin shell thickness compared to Dura type (Dagwa and Ibhadode, 2008). The use of materials such as rice husk, bagasse, palm kernel shell powder, etc. as fillers and/ or reinforcement agents in polymers and composite materials manufacture such as in brake pads have been reported by several authors (Aigbodion et al., 2010).

Natural sand and crushed gravels have been used for many years as aggregates for concrete production due to their availability across the country. However, the high demand for normal weight concrete for construction continues to drastically reduce the natural stone deposits and consequently damage the environment. The introduction of artificial and natural lightweight aggregates (LWA) to replace conventional aggregates for the production of concrete in many developed countries, has brought immense benefits in the development of infrastructure, especially, high rise structures using lightweight concrete (Mahmud et al., 2009).

The high cost of building materials in the developing countries of the world can be reduced to a minimum by the use of alternative materials that are cheap, locally available in most countries and which bring about a reduction in the overall dead weight of the building. Some industrial and agricultural bye-products that have little or no economic benefit could gainfully be used as building materials.

1.1 Problem Statement

Many problems are associated with concrete with inadequate curing practices. Typically, the most common curing-related distress of concrete is plastic shrinkage cracking. Fresh concrete exposed to hot, windy and arid environment are most easily to show such kind of distress at the surface area. Particularly, when the moisture evaporation rate at the top surface of concrete exceeds the rate at which the moisture is supplied through the concrete bleeding process (the process where excessive mixing water are forced to go upward due to the settlement of aggregate and cement particles), plastic shrinkage cracking is easily formed from the failure to resist the stresses induced by the volumetric contraction of concrete due to moisture loss before enough strength has been developed.

1.2 Aim of the Study

The aim of this research work is to carry out a comparative study on the compressive strength of palm kernel shell concrete using different curing methods

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this research work are:

  1. To determine the workability of fresh concrete made from palm kernel shell.
  2. To determine the physical properties of concrete produce with palm kernel shell using four (4) different curing methods.
  3. To carry out statistical analysis on the results of compressive strength of concrete from the four (4) different types of curing methods for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days.

1.4 Justification of the Study

This research will help to discover how curing types affect the compressive strengths of palm kernel shell concrete.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The scope of this research work is limited to the comparative study of the compressive strength of palm kernel shell concrete using four (4) different curing methods

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

  1. From the result above, it was found that at 7days and 14days, Sprinkling Curing has the highest Compressive Strength of 12.07N/mm2 and 13.64N/mm2.
  2. At 21days Sprinkling and Ponding were at the same level of Compressive Strength of 15.64N/mm2 and at 28days
  3. Ponding Curing has the highest value of 17.07N/mm2, follow by Sprinkling Curing method at 28days Compressive Strength of 15.78N/mm2

5.2 Recommendation

it is recommended that Ponding Curing Method and Sprinkling Curing Method are the best method of curing that can be adopted for curing Palm Kernel Shell Concrete.

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