Comparative Studies On The Proximate Composition And Functional Properties Of Conventional Garri And Garri From Chips


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Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)


Dedication


This work this dedicated to God Almighty for his Grace and Inspiration He gave me throughout this work. I also dedicate this project to my parents and friends.

Finally, I say may all Glory and thanks be to God Almighty


Acknowledgement


I wish to express my sincere gratitude to everyone who contributed in one way or the other to the success of this work. I am most grateful to my supervisor, Miss. Amadi Nneka .V. whose advice and help brought me to the success of this work. My profound gratitude goes to my special aunty, Miss Grace Jumbo for her ceaseless prayers, encouragement and financial support. I also acknowledge my special friends and mentor, Mrs. Mbuchi Orji, Mr. Sunny Amehule, Harry for their ceaseless prayers and encouragement. I also thank my one in a million friend, Nzerem Chioma for her support and help. Also my friends, Nonye, Kingsely, Chinelo, Blessing, Uju, Chioma, Nkeiru and others to numerous to mention for their love and encouragement.

Finally, my special thanks goes to my parents, Mr. and Mrs. Jumbo, my only sister, Benita, whose ceaseless prayers and support brought me up to this stage of life, even to the completion of this project. Also I want to acknowledge my able lecturer, Mr. Tega, Mr. chijioke Okpara, and my H.O.D, Mr. O.B. Uzoechina for their advice and encouragement. And I won’t forget my Father in Heaven, Jehovah for His infinite mercies and Inspiration in carrying out this work. I say may all Glory and Adoration be to His name.


Abstract


Gari was processed from fresh cassava and dry chips from cassava. The garri samples were analyzed for some physico-chemical properties. The proximate composition of conventional garri were 9.8% moisture, 1.56% ash, 2.19% protein, 2.25% fibre, 0.2% fat, 84.00% carbohydrate and 325KJ energy, while garri from chips showed 5.9% moisture, 1.58% ash, 1.5% protein, 1.5% fibre, 0.3 fat, 84.29% carbohydrate and 343.3KJ energy.

Chemical analysis of conventional garri samples were 3.7pH, 1.25% TTA, and 6.80 (mg/kg) HCN, while garri from chips showed 3.6pH, 1.02% TTA, and 6.50 (mg.kg) HCN. The functional properties of conventional garri were 0.4g/cm3 BD, 46% water absorption capacity, 50% swelling capacity 65oc GT, 45mm particle size and 37.55% percentage yield, while garri from chips showed 0.6 g.cm3 BD, 44% water absorption capacity, 25% swelling capacity, 60oc GT, 30.6mm average particle size and 30.00% yield capacity.


Table Of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Approval Page i
  • Dedication ii
  • Acknowledgement iii
  • Abstract iv
  • Table of Contents v – viii

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction 1 – 3

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature Review 4
  • 2.1 Origin and Historical Background of Cassava 4 – 5
  • 2.2 Classification of Cassava 5
  • 2.3 Chemical Composition of Cassava 6 – 7
  • 2.4 Nutritional Value of Cassava 8 – 9
  • 2.5 Products gotten from Cassava 10
  • 2.5.1 Human Food 10
  • 2.5.2 Animal Feed 10 – 11
  • 2.5.3 Industrial Products 11
  • 2.5.4 Cassava Alcohol 11 – 12
  • 2.5.5 Cassava Flour 12 – 14
  • 2.5.6 Noodles From Cassava 14
  • 2.5.7 Baked Cassava Products 14 – 15
  • 2.5.8 Dried Cassava Chips 15
  • 2.5.9 Garri from Cassava Chips 16
  • 2.6 Economic Impact of Garri 16 – 18
  • 2.7 Garri 18 – 21
  • 2.7.1 Production of Garri (Garri Processing) 21
  • 2.7.2 Steps Involved in Garri Processing 22 – 26
  • 2.7.3 Garri From Cassava Chips 26
  • 2.8 Chemical and Functional Properties of Garri 27
  • 2.8.1 Chemical Properties of Garri 27 – 30
  • 2.8.2 Proximate Composition of Garri 31
  • 2.8.3 Functional Properties of Garri 31 -33
  • 2.9 Quality Control on Garri Production 34 – 35
  • 2.9.1 Nutritive Value of Garri 35 – 36
  • 2.9.2 Uses of Garri 36

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Materials And Methods 37
  • 3.1 Materials 37
  • 3.2 Treatment of Samples 38 – 41
  • 3.3 Proximate Composition / Chemical Analysis 42 -48
  • 3.3.1 Determination of Moisture Content 42
  • 3.3.2 Determination of Ash Content 42
  • 3.3.3 Determination of Protein Content 43 – 45
  • 3.3.4 Determination of Crude Fibre 45
  • 3.3.5 Determination of Fat Content 45 – 46
  • 3.3.6 Cyanide Determination 46 – 47
  • 3.3.7 Determination of Total Titratable Acidity (TTA) 47
  • 3.3.8 Determination Of Carbohydrate Content 47 – 48
  • 3.3.9 Determination of Energy Content 48
  • 3.4 Functional Properties Determination 48
  • 3.4.1 Bulk Density 48
  • 3.4.2 Water Absorption Capacity 48 – 49
  • 3.4.3 pH Determination 49
  • 3.4.4 Swelling Capacity (Index) 49 – 50
  • 3.4.5 Gelatinization Temperature 50
  • 3.4.6 Average Particle Size 50
  • 3.4.7 Percentage Yield 50 – 51

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Results And Discussion 52
  • 4.1 Results 52 – 53
  • 4.2 Discussion 53 – 58

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation 59
  • 5.1 Conclusion 59 – 60
  • 5.2 Recommendation 60
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Cassava is a shrub of the Euphobiaceae, the spurge family, which is a native of South America. However, it is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root.
Cassava belongs to the genus Manihot esculenta crantz of the natural order Euphobiaceae. It is said to have been introduced from Brazil. Its original home to West Africa was by the early Portuguese explorers. Cassava contains cyanogenic glucosides in the form of linamarin (93%) and to much less extent, Lotaustralin (7%). The amount of cyanogenic glucosides varies with the part of the plants.

Cassava is the most widely grown of the root crops as it is adaptable to a broad range of climatic and soil conditions. Cassava is always processed before consumption on marketing. Cassava is processed to detoxify it and also increase its storage life and facilitate its transport. (Ihekoronye et al., 1985)

Cassava is a major source of carbohydrates that matches the Nigerian population growth. Cassava is diversified into different food products and these products are available all year round thus making cassava an important staple food for many rural households in Nigeria. One of such is garri (Onabolu, 2001).

Garri or garri is a popular West African food made from cassava tubers. The spelling “garri” is mainly used in Nigeria, Cameroon and Ghana. To make garri, fresh cassava tubers are peeled, washed and grated or crushed to produce a mash. The mash is placed in a porous bag and allowed to ferment and dehydrate for one or two days and weighed down with a heavy object or with a hydraulic press while it is fermenting. The dewatered and fermented lump of mash is pulverized, sifted and the resulting semi dried mash is roasted by heating in a pan (Nweke et al., 2002). The resultant granular product which is preferred can be consumed dry or with cold water or reconstructed with hot water to form “dough” which is eaten with soup. (Oluwole et al., 2004)

The safety concern in the quality of garri which is hydrogen cyanide arises from the presence of cyanogenic glucoside which upon hydrolysis produces cyanohydrins that further breaks down to release hydrogen cyanide – a known plant toxin (Bokanga, 1994 ; Ernesto et al., 2000). The traditional developed methods of processing cassava products have been found to be grossly inadequate in the removal of cyanogens, irrespective of whether the roots are from low or high cyanide variety. (Koch et al., 1994; Achinewhu and Owuamanam, 2001).

The safe level of hydrogen cyanide in garri is 10mgHCN/kg, presence of cyanide above this in cassava flour by FAO/WHO (1999), may pose health risk to the consumers. Some of the health conditions associated with cassava meals include:Tropical Ataxic Neuropathy (TAN); (Oshuntokun et al., 1968; Akintowa et al., 1994).

The aim of this work is to carry out the comparative study on the proximate composition and functional properties of conventional garri and garri from chips, so as to know the one which is best for consumption.


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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