Comparative Studies On The Proximate Composition And Functional Properties Of Conventional Garri And Garri From Chips
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This work this dedicated to God Almighty for his Grace and Inspiration He gave me throughout this work. I also dedicate this project to my parents and friends.
Finally, I say may all Glory and thanks be to God Almighty
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to everyone who contributed in one way or the other to the success of this work. I am most grateful to my supervisor, Miss. Amadi Nneka .V. whose advice and help brought me to the success of this work. My profound gratitude goes to my special aunty, Miss Grace Jumbo for her ceaseless prayers, encouragement and financial support. I also acknowledge my special friends and mentor, Mrs. Mbuchi Orji, Mr. Sunny Amehule, Harry for their ceaseless prayers and encouragement. I also thank my one in a million friend, Nzerem Chioma for her support and help. Also my friends, Nonye, Kingsely, Chinelo, Blessing, Uju, Chioma, Nkeiru and others to numerous to mention for their love and encouragement.
Finally, my special thanks goes to my parents, Mr. and Mrs. Jumbo, my only sister, Benita, whose ceaseless prayers and support brought me up to this stage of life, even to the completion of this project. Also I want to acknowledge my able lecturer, Mr. Tega, Mr. chijioke Okpara, and my H.O.D, Mr. O.B. Uzoechina for their advice and encouragement. And I won’t forget my Father in Heaven, Jehovah for His infinite mercies and Inspiration in carrying out this work. I say may all Glory and Adoration be to His name.
Gari was processed from fresh cassava and dry chips from cassava. The garri samples were analyzed for some physico-chemical properties. The proximate composition of conventional garri were 9.8% moisture, 1.56% ash, 2.19% protein, 2.25% fibre, 0.2% fat, 84.00% carbohydrate and 325KJ energy, while garri from chips showed 5.9% moisture, 1.58% ash, 1.5% protein, 1.5% fibre, 0.3 fat, 84.29% carbohydrate and 343.3KJ energy.
Chemical analysis of conventional garri samples were 3.7pH, 1.25% TTA, and 6.80 (mg/kg) HCN, while garri from chips showed 3.6pH, 1.02% TTA, and 6.50 (mg.kg) HCN. The functional properties of conventional garri were 0.4g/cm3 BD, 46% water absorption capacity, 50% swelling capacity 65oc GT, 45mm particle size and 37.55% percentage yield, while garri from chips showed 0.6 g.cm3 BD, 44% water absorption capacity, 25% swelling capacity, 60oc GT, 30.6mm average particle size and 30.00% yield capacity.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval Page i
- Dedication ii
- Acknowledgement iii
- Abstract iv
- Table of Contents v – viii
- 1.0 Introduction 1 – 3
- 2.0 Literature Review 4
- 2.1 Origin and Historical Background of Cassava 4 – 5
- 2.2 Classification of Cassava 5
- 2.3 Chemical Composition of Cassava 6 – 7
- 2.4 Nutritional Value of Cassava 8 – 9
- 2.5 Products gotten from Cassava 10
- 2.5.1 Human Food 10
- 2.5.2 Animal Feed 10 – 11
- 2.5.3 Industrial Products 11
- 2.5.4 Cassava Alcohol 11 – 12
- 2.5.5 Cassava Flour 12 – 14
- 2.5.6 Noodles From Cassava 14
- 2.5.7 Baked Cassava Products 14 – 15
- 2.5.8 Dried Cassava Chips 15
- 2.5.9 Garri from Cassava Chips 16
- 2.6 Economic Impact of Garri 16 – 18
- 2.7 Garri 18 – 21
- 2.7.1 Production of Garri (Garri Processing) 21
- 2.7.2 Steps Involved in Garri Processing 22 – 26
- 2.7.3 Garri From Cassava Chips 26
- 2.8 Chemical and Functional Properties of Garri 27
- 2.8.1 Chemical Properties of Garri 27 – 30
- 2.8.2 Proximate Composition of Garri 31
- 2.8.3 Functional Properties of Garri 31 -33
- 2.9 Quality Control on Garri Production 34 – 35
- 2.9.1 Nutritive Value of Garri 35 – 36
- 2.9.2 Uses of Garri 36
- 3.0 Materials And Methods 37
- 3.1 Materials 37
- 3.2 Treatment of Samples 38 – 41
- 3.3 Proximate Composition / Chemical Analysis 42 -48
- 3.3.1 Determination of Moisture Content 42
- 3.3.2 Determination of Ash Content 42
- 3.3.3 Determination of Protein Content 43 – 45
- 3.3.4 Determination of Crude Fibre 45
- 3.3.5 Determination of Fat Content 45 – 46
- 3.3.6 Cyanide Determination 46 – 47
- 3.3.7 Determination of Total Titratable Acidity (TTA) 47
- 3.3.8 Determination Of Carbohydrate Content 47 – 48
- 3.3.9 Determination of Energy Content 48
- 3.4 Functional Properties Determination 48
- 3.4.1 Bulk Density 48
- 3.4.2 Water Absorption Capacity 48 – 49
- 3.4.3 pH Determination 49
- 3.4.4 Swelling Capacity (Index) 49 – 50
- 3.4.5 Gelatinization Temperature 50
- 3.4.6 Average Particle Size 50
- 3.4.7 Percentage Yield 50 – 51
- 4.0 Results And Discussion 52
- 4.1 Results 52 – 53
- 4.2 Discussion 53 – 58
- 5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation 59
- 5.1 Conclusion 59 – 60
- 5.2 Recommendation 60
Cassava is a shrub of the Euphobiaceae, the spurge family, which is a native of South America. However, it is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root.
Cassava belongs to the genus Manihot esculenta crantz of the natural order Euphobiaceae. It is said to have been introduced from Brazil. Its original home to West Africa was by the early Portuguese explorers. Cassava contains cyanogenic glucosides in the form of linamarin (93%) and to much less extent, Lotaustralin (7%). The amount of cyanogenic glucosides varies with the part of the plants.
Cassava is the most widely grown of the root crops as it is adaptable to a broad range of climatic and soil conditions. Cassava is always processed before consumption on marketing. Cassava is processed to detoxify it and also increase its storage life and facilitate its transport. (Ihekoronye et al., 1985)
Cassava is a major source of carbohydrates that matches the Nigerian population growth. Cassava is diversified into different food products and these products are available all year round thus making cassava an important staple food for many rural households in Nigeria. One of such is garri (Onabolu, 2001).
Garri or garri is a popular West African food made from cassava tubers. The spelling “garri” is mainly used in Nigeria, Cameroon and Ghana. To make garri, fresh cassava tubers are peeled, washed and grated or crushed to produce a mash. The mash is placed in a porous bag and allowed to ferment and dehydrate for one or two days and weighed down with a heavy object or with a hydraulic press while it is fermenting. The dewatered and fermented lump of mash is pulverized, sifted and the resulting semi dried mash is roasted by heating in a pan (Nweke et al., 2002). The resultant granular product which is preferred can be consumed dry or with cold water or reconstructed with hot water to form “dough” which is eaten with soup. (Oluwole et al., 2004)
The safety concern in the quality of garri which is hydrogen cyanide arises from the presence of cyanogenic glucoside which upon hydrolysis produces cyanohydrins that further breaks down to release hydrogen cyanide – a known plant toxin (Bokanga, 1994 ; Ernesto et al., 2000). The traditional developed methods of processing cassava products have been found to be grossly inadequate in the removal of cyanogens, irrespective of whether the roots are from low or high cyanide variety. (Koch et al., 1994; Achinewhu and Owuamanam, 2001).
The safe level of hydrogen cyanide in garri is 10mgHCN/kg, presence of cyanide above this in cassava flour by FAO/WHO (1999), may pose health risk to the consumers. Some of the health conditions associated with cassava meals include:Tropical Ataxic Neuropathy (TAN); (Oshuntokun et al., 1968; Akintowa et al., 1994).
The aim of this work is to carry out the comparative study on the proximate composition and functional properties of conventional garri and garri from chips, so as to know the one which is best for consumption.
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The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
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2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
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