Comparative Studies On The Proximate Composition And Functional Properties Of Conventional Garri And Garri From Chips

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Comparative Studies On The Proximate Composition And Functional Properties Of Conventional Garri And Garri From Chips


Abstract


Gari was processed from fresh cassava and dry chips from cassava. The garri samples were analyzed for some physico-chemical properties. The proximate composition of conventional garri were 9.8% moisture, 1.56% ash, 2.19% protein, 2.25% fibre, 0.2% fat, 84.00% carbohydrate and 325KJ energy, while garri from chips showed 5.9% moisture, 1.58% ash, 1.5% protein, 1.5% fibre, 0.3 fat, 84.29% carbohydrate and 343.3KJ energy.

Chemical analysis of conventional garri samples were 3.7pH, 1.25% TTA, and 6.80 (mg/kg) HCN, while garri from chips showed 3.6pH, 1.02% TTA, and 6.50 (mg.kg) HCN. The functional properties of conventional garri were 0.4g/cm3 BD, 46% water absorption capacity, 50% swelling capacity 65oc GT, 45mm particle size and 37.55% percentage yield, while garri from chips showed 0.6 g.cm3 BD, 44% water absorption capacity, 25% swelling capacity, 60oc GT, 30.6mm average particle size and 30.00% yield capacity.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction


Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Origin and Historical Background of Cassava
  • 2.2 Classification of Cassava
  • 2.3 Chemical Composition of Cassava
  • 2.4 Nutritional Value of Cassava
  • 2.5 Products gotten from Cassava
  • 2.5.1 Human Food
  • 2.5.2 Animal Feed
  • 2.5.3 Industrial Products
  • 2.5.4 Cassava Alcohol
  • 2.5.5 Cassava Flour
  • 2.5.6 Noodles From Cassava
  • 2.5.7 Baked Cassava Products
  • 2.5.8 Dried Cassava Chips
  • 2.5.9 Garri from Cassava Chips
  • 2.6 Economic Impact of Garri
  • 2.7 Garri
  • 2.7.1 Production of Garri (Garri Processing)
  • 2.7.2 Steps Involved in Garri Processing
  • 2.7.3 Garri From Cassava Chips
  • 2.8 Chemical and Functional Properties of Garri
  • 2.8.1 Chemical Properties of Garri
  • 2.8.2 Proximate Composition of Garri 31
  • 2.8.3 Functional Properties of Garri
  • 2.9 Quality Control on Garri Production
  • 2.9.1 Nutritive Value of Garri
  • 2.9.2 Uses of Garri

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.2 Treatment of Samples
  • 3.3 Proximate Composition / Chemical Analysis
  • 3.3.1 Determination of Moisture Content
  • 3.3.2 Determination of Ash Content
  • 3.3.3 Determination of Protein Content
  • 3.3.4 Determination of Crude Fibre
  • 3.3.5 Determination of Fat Content
  • 3.3.6 Cyanide Determination
  • 3.3.7 Determination of Total Titratable Acidity (TTA)
  • 3.3.8 Determination Of Carbohydrate Content
  • 3.3.9 Determination of Energy Content
  • 3.4 Functional Properties Determination
  • 3.4.1 Bulk Density
  • 3.4.2 Water Absorption Capacity
  • 3.4.3 pH Determination
  • 3.4.4 Swelling Capacity (Index)
  • 3.4.5 Gelatinization Temperature
  • 3.4.6 Average Particle Size
  • 3.4.7 Percentage Yield

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Cassava is a shrub of the Euphobiaceae, the spurge family, which is a native of South America. However, it is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root.
Cassava belongs to the genus Manihot esculenta crantz of the natural order Euphobiaceae. It is said to have been introduced from Brazil. Its original home to West Africa was by the early Portuguese explorers. Cassava contains cyanogenic glucosides in the form of linamarin (93%) and to much less extent, Lotaustralin (7%). The amount of cyanogenic glucosides varies with the part of the plants.

Cassava is the most widely grown of the root crops as it is adaptable to a broad range of climatic and soil conditions. Cassava is always processed before consumption on marketing. Cassava is processed to detoxify it and also increase its storage life and facilitate its transport. (Ihekoronye et al., 1985)

Cassava is a major source of carbohydrates that matches the Nigerian population growth. Cassava is diversified into different food products and these products are available all year round thus making cassava an important staple food for many rural households in Nigeria. One of such is garri (Onabolu, 2001).

Garri or garri is a popular West African food made from cassava tubers. The spelling β€œgarri” is mainly used in Nigeria, Cameroon and Ghana. To make garri, fresh cassava tubers are peeled, washed and grated or crushed to produce a mash. The mash is placed in a porous bag and allowed to ferment and dehydrate for one or two days and weighed down with a heavy object or with a hydraulic press while it is fermenting. The dewatered and fermented lump of mash is pulverized, sifted and the resulting semi dried mash is roasted by heating in a pan (Nweke et al., 2002). The resultant granular product which is preferred can be consumed dry or with cold water or reconstructed with hot water to form β€œdough” which is eaten with soup. (Oluwole et al., 2004)

The safety concern in the quality of garri which is hydrogen cyanide arises from the presence of cyanogenic glucoside which upon hydrolysis produces cyanohydrins that further breaks down to release hydrogen cyanide – a known plant toxin (Bokanga, 1994 ; Ernesto et al., 2000). The traditional developed methods of processing cassava products have been found to be grossly inadequate in the removal of cyanogens, irrespective of whether the roots are from low or high cyanide variety. (Koch et al., 1994; Achinewhu and Owuamanam, 2001).

The safe level of hydrogen cyanide in garri is 10mgHCN/kg, presence of cyanide above this in cassava flour by FAO/WHO (1999), may pose health risk to the consumers. Some of the health conditions associated with cassava meals include: Tropical Ataxic Neuropathy (TAN); (Oshuntokun et al., 1968; Akintowa et al., 1994).

The aim of this work is to carry out the comparative study on the proximate composition and functional properties of conventional garri and garri from chips, so as to know the one which is best for consumption.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The result of the present study has shown the possibility of producing garri from dried cassava chips, which compared favourably well with the conventional garri in terms of their proximate, chemical and functional properties.

The study also shows that good quality of garri is dependent on he processing steps used in the production of garri.
In conclusion, conventional garri has high moisture content, protein, fibre, low fat, ash carbohydrate and energy content compared to that of garri from chips, which has high ash, fat, carbohydrate, and energy content, low moisture, fibre and protein for proximate composition. And for the chemical properties, conventional garri has pH, total titratable acid, and hydrogen cyanide contents compared to that of garri from chips. And the functional properties, conventional garri has high water absorption capacity, swelling capacity, gelatinization temperature, average particle size, low bulk density and percentage yield compared to garri from chips, which has high bulk density and percentage yield, low water absorption capacity, swelling capacity, gelatinization temperature and average particle size.


5.2 Recommendation

It is recommended that garri from chips should be taken because of is low hydrogen cyanide (6.50mg/kg) when compared to the hydrogen cyanide of conventional garri which is (6.80mg/kg) and it is found good and non-toxic to the health.

And it is suggested that further studies should be carried out on comparing oven drying and sun drying of cassava chips to produce garri.


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