A Comparative Investigation Into The Lipid Profile Of Moringa Oleifera Seeds And Leaves

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

A Comparative Investigation Into The Lipid Profile Of Moringa Oleifera Seeds And Leaves


Abstract


Moringa Oleifera seed and leaves used in Eastern Nigeria have an impressive range of multipurpose medicinal uses with high nutritional values. However, to be clinically used, more scientific data are needed. The aim of this present study is to extract and characterize the oil content of Moringa Oleifera seeds and leaves. The ground seeds and leaves were extract with n-hexane as the solvent using soxhlet extractor.

The seed oil of Moringa Oleifera was analyzed for its iodine values, pH, viscosity, free fatty acids value, peroxide value, saponification value and density using conventional methodies. The maximum percentage extractive yield of oil were found to be seed (20.634%) and leaves (0.00%). The characterization analysis of the seed oil revealed that the tested parameters give these values; specific gravity (0.903), pH (5.60), saponification values (13.99), peroxide values (0.00), viscosity (580.24), free fatty acid value (49.37) and iodine values (0.33). Therefore, the results showed that Moringa Oleifera seed oil is a source of raw material for the industries as a result of its high oil yield.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Moringa Oleifera (synonym: moringa pterygosperma) is the most widely cultivated species of the genus moringa, which is the only genus in the family moringacae English common names include; Moringa, Benzolive tree, (^ab “USDA GRIN Taxonmy”) and west Indian ben. It is also known as drumstick tree, from the appearance of the long, slender, triangular seeds pods, horseradish tree, from the taste of the roots which resembles horseradish, or Ben oil tree from the oil derived from the seeds. The tree itself is rather slender, with drooping branches that grow to approximately 10 meter in height. In cultivation, it is often cut back annually to 1-2 meters and allowed to regrow so the pods and leaves remains within arm’s reach. (^ab “USDA GRIN Taxonomy”).

Moringa Oleifera lam (syn. Moringa pterygosperma; commonly known as “Miracle Tree”, Horseradish tree”, or “Ben oil tree”) is the best known and most widely distributed species of morignaceae family, having an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value throughout the world. Native to western and sub-himalayan tracts, India, Pakistan, Asia and Africa, (Somali, et al 1999, and Mughal et al; 1999) this plant is well distributed in the Philippines, Cambodia, America and the Caribbean Islands (Morton, 1991). In some parts of the world, Moringa oleifera is referred to as the “drumstick tree” or the “horseradish tree”, whereas in others it is known as the “kelor tree” (Anwar and Bhanger, 2003). While in the Nile Valley, the name of the tree is ‘shagara al’ Rauwaq, which means tree for purifying (Von, 1996). In pakistan, Moringa Oleifera is locally known as “Sohanjna” and is grown and cultivated all over the country (Qaiser, 1993, and Anwar et al; 2005). It tolerates a wide range of rainfall with minimum annual rainfall requirement estimated at 250mm and maximum at over 3000mm and at pH of 5.0 – 9.0 (Palada and Changl, 2003).

Moringa Oleifera is an important food commodity which has had enormous attention as the “natural nutrition of the tropics”.

The parts of this plant includes; the roots, bark, gum, leaves, fruits (pods), flowers, seeds and seed oil. The leaves, fruits, flowers and immature pods of this plant tree a re used as a highly nutritive vegetable in many countries, particularly in India, Pakistan, Philippines, Hawaii and many parts of Africa (D’ Souza and Kulkarni 1993) (Awar and Bhanger, 2003; Anwar et al; 2005). A number of medicinal properties have been ascribed to various parts of this highly esteemed tree, (Fuglie, 2001; Faizi et al; 1998); Lalas and Tsaknis, 2002, Bhatnargar et al 1991; Siddhuraju and Becker, 2003; Dahot, 1988; Makonne et al; 1997 and the Nealth of India 1962).

The lipid profile is the collective term given to the estimation of typically, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lopporetein (LDL) cholesterol ad triacyl glycerides (TAG). Lipid profile can also be defined “lipid panel”. An extend lipid profile may include very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol. This is used to identify hyperlipidemia (various disturbances of cholesterol and triglycerides level). (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).


1.2 Statement Of Problem

Many works have been reported on the medicinal values and therapeutic properties of Moringa Oleifera, this has prompted the need for a project work to be carried out; to investigate the lipid profile of Moringa Oleifera seeds and leaves.


1.3 Objective of the study

The braod objective of the study is to conduct a comparative investigation into the lipid profile of moringa oleifera seeds and leaves. Specifically the objectives of the study are thus:

  1. To determine the lipid content of various part of moringer plant
  2. To examine the effect of temperature on the plant

Chapter Five


Discussion And Conclusion

5.1 Discussion

M. oleifera is a tree of multipurpose uses; it has been consumed for various applications such as nutritional, medicinal and industrial uses. Studies have shown Moringa species as being rich sources of natural lipids compounds. The findings of the present study confirm that Moringa tree contains high lipids and nutrients that distributed in different part of tree. Moringa peregrine was found to also contain lipid however; M. oleifera contains the highest concentrations of nutritional values compared to other types of the plant (Reyes Sánchez et al., 2006).

There is an increasing attention in lipids due to the ability to inhibit the deleterious effects of free radicals in the body. Moringa leaves have been reported as the major source of nutrition as it encompass many lipid compounds such as carotenoids, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and phenols (Perry et al., 1999).

In the present study, the Moringa leaf had high concentration of lipids and proteins. TAOC differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) among seedling parts. The Leaf showed the highest concentration of TAOC, AsA, as well as TP. In view of the high concentration of these useful nutrients, the tree can be used to combating malnutrition in the world. The leaves had been widely consumed by human for a long time in different ways. Fresh leaves can be eaten raw or cooked like spinach. The leaves also can be boiled and eaten like green beans. Moringa leaves powder can be stored for some time reaching about six months before it is consumed.

It has also been reported that Moringa leaves provide a huge concentration of essential nutrients including protein and fiber (Lockett et al., 2000; Fahey, 2005), for this reason, it is used as an alternative source for nutritional supplements to improving health in some countries (Anwar et al., 2007). In addition, Moringa leaves can prevent the risk of some diseases and these effects have been with the presence of lipid compounds (Ashok Kumar and Pari, 2003; Lipipun et al., 2003; Santos et al., 2012). The stem of the seedling was reported to contain higher concentration of TAOC that was found to be second following the leaf of plant. The Root and bark of Moringa are used for traditional medicine and treatment of various human diseases (Fahey, 2005). They are used as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral and analgesic (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2003). These properties are related as they have strong lipid capacity. The roots comprise great levels of nutritional values e.g. protein, minerals, vitamins, and fiber (Fahey, 2005).

The roots recorded high concentrations of carotenoids, AsA and TP following the leaf. The highest concentration of α- tocopherol was found in seed produced followed by TP. The phenols concentration was found no significant in seedling parts, excluding that the seed membrane-bound phenols concentration was predominantly produced. This result supports the speculation that shows the vitamin E are dominantly produced in the seed as oil source and has additional position of cell defense. Moringa seed oil called (Ben oil) is high quality oil. It has been used for different purposes such as cooking oil in salads, for fine machine lubrication, it is also useful in manufacturing of cosmetic industry like soap, perfumes, and hair care products (Tsaknis et al., 1999; Price, 2000). The powdered seeds could be used for water purification, especially in rural communities in the African countries (Berger et al., 1984). The Moringa seeds are also eaten fresh, cooked, powdered and drenched for tea or use the powder in curries (Gassenschmidt et al., 1995). M. oleifera oil also can be used for the production of
biodiesel.


5.2 Conclusions

The present study sought to explore the level of lipids compounds of different parts of Moringa tree. The results from our research showed that M. oleifera as a rich source lipid activity and numerous beneficial nutrients. Our findings also further support the use the Moringa leaves as a source of vitamins Particularly C and E; therefore M. oleifera is an excellent plant candidate to be used to improve the health and nutrition of communities in Nigeria.


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