Comparative Analysis Of Sources Of Water And Water Borne Diseases

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Comparative Analysis Of Sources Of Water And Water Borne Diseases


Comparative examination of sources of water supply and water borne disease in Independence layout Enugu was carried out with a view to determine their levels of contamination of bacteria. The sources of water examined are tap water, well water and stream water. The questionnaire was used for the survey. Bacteria isolated from the water samples include coliforms especially Escherichia coli. Stream water and well water were found to contain bacterial isolates unlike the tap water that has none.

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

Water is an essential substance in human life as it is used for various purposes such as drinking washing cooking. Human noroviruses cause the most gastrointestinal illness in all regions of the world, with the vast majority thought to be acquired via person-to-person and then by food (Ahmed et al., 2014) given the predominance of genogroup II strains implicated. In waterborne cases, genogroup I is normally implicated (Mathew et al., 2012), presumably due to increased environmental robustness. An interesting finding with human noroviruses and the second most common cause of gastrointestinal illness, rotavirus (although greatly diminishing due to childhood vaccination programs), is the need for certain histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptors for these pathogens to bind to target cells (Tan and Viang, 2014).

Not only do certain gut bacteria have these HBGA binding sites but these bacteria may also facilitate infection, as recently demonstrated with human B cells (Jones et al., 2014). Therefore, one’s gut microbiome and blood group impact the likelihood of infection. Furthermore, there is now optimism that a routine cell culture system for human noroviruses may be developed, which would be of particular value to the water-treatment industry. Non-human, culturable noroviruses, such as murine noroviruses among others, are used as surrogates for treatment performance (inactivation studies) but there is limited understanding of the validity of these surrogates for any human norovirus genogroup or mode of inactivation (LI et al.,2014; Cromeans et al., 2014).

The classic waterborne enteric pathogens include Vibrio cholerae (serogroups O1 and O139, causing cholera), Salmonella enterica (subsp. enterica ser. Typhi, causing typhoid), and Shigella spp. (four species causing dysentery), which have largely been controlled by water treatment/disinfection and are therefore rarely an issue via drinking water in developed regions. However, person-to-person and foodborne spread maintains Shigella sonnei within the sewage of developed regions, along with closely-related shiga toxin and verotoxin-producing E. coli, and pathogenic species of Campylobacter, Salmonella, Arcobacter, Helicobacter and Yersinia. An emerging issue is that of AMR, which may occur within any of the bacterial members but is noted here by example for E. coli in well waters associated with animal production (Coleman et al., 2013). These AMR genes may horizontally transfer between commensal and enteric pathogenic bacteria, and present a higher risk due to antimicrobial treatment failures (Ashbolt et al., 2013). Within healthcare facilities, there is also a considerable health burden due to the prevalence of AMR Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium difficile; with the latter being a spore-former it may persist in sewage and river waters and eventually make its way to drinking waters, and AMR-P. aeruginosa may grow post-water treatment

1.2 Statement of the problem

A common feature of the water-based pathogens is the ability to grow to problematic concentrations within biofilms on pipe walls and sediments, particularly during periods of water stagnation and warmer conditions; therefore, control below some critical concentration is necessary to manage these environmental pathogens. Hence there is need for comparative analysis of sources of water and water borne diseases.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The major objective of the study is the comparative analysis of sources of water and water borne diseases.

1.4 Research questions

  1. What are the various sources of water?
  2. What are water borne diseases?
  3. What is role of sources of water on water borne disease outbreak?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The research gives a clear insight into the comparative analysis of sources of water and water borne diseases. It also gives a clear insight into the role of water sources in water borne diseases. This research also serves as a preliminary study in identifying the common microorganisms in different water sources that may be responsible for water borne diseases.

Chapter Five

Discussion, Recommendation and Conclusion

The analysis examination carried out on the water sources that serves for private and public water supply were intended to assist in the determination of the quality of drinking water in Independence layout of Enugu state. (World Health Organization[WHO], 1985). have stipulated standards for water meant for human consumption and the result of the present investigation did not meet the standards except the tap water.

The total bacterial count of the water sources showed general variation from different samples (table2) the result shows that the well water sources has poorer quality in terms of contamination with coliform. (table1) The tap water sources showed no content of any coliform unlike other water sources, this result expected as the water source is most likely to have been treated by the process of chlorination to public out lets

The isolation of coliform from the water sources is indication of feacal contamination of the water sources like the well and the stream water. Their presence also indicates poor sanitary condition of the water sources.


Judging from the result obtained I would like to recommend the following.

Personal hygiene should be adopted by every one using natural water, that is, water obtained from any of the natural sources should be boiled or treated before consumption.

Water purification method that provides safe drinking water should be made available by government in order to avoid out break cause by pathogenic organism found in water. The government should make more sacrifices to provide adequate treatment facilities that purify sewage prior to discharge or disposal, so as to save our drinking water form continuos pollution.


Stream water and well water in (Independence layout locality) Enugu metropolis has been found to be unsafe for consumption and for industrial uses because of the large number of bacteria that grew on agar plate incubated for 24 hours.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What are the causes of waterborne diseases?

Use the browser controls to adjust the font size, or print this page. Waterborne diseases are caused by a variety of microorganisms, biotoxins, and toxic contaminants, which lead to devastating illnesses such as cholera, schistosomiasis and other gastrointestinal problems.

What are the most common waterborne diseases in Nigeria?

The most common waterborne diseases in Nigeria include Cholera, Dracunculiasis, Hepatitis, and Typhoid [27]. Cases of water borne diseases linked to contaminations of drinking water with pathogens have also been reported in several towns [28,29,30].

Is the global incidence of waterborne diseases decreasing?

Even though waterborne outbreaks (WBDOs) have been declining dramatically since the 1900s, the global burden of infectious waterborne disease is still considerable. Moreover, the numbers of outbreaks underestimate the real incidence of waterborne diseases [5].

What is the importance of the study of water resources?

The research gives a clear insight into the comparative analysis of sources of water and water borne diseases. It also gives a clear insight into the role of water sources in water borne diseases.

Are there cures for waterborne diseases?

…There is now conclusive evidence that simple, acceptable, low-cost interventions at the household and community level are capable of dramatically improving the microbial quality of household stored water and reducing the attendant risks of diarrhoeal disease and death.

What are the common water borne diseases in Delhi?

All the in-charges of dispensaries have been directed to report if there is any abnormal increase in water borne diseases or any clustering of water borne diseases such as; Gastro- enteritis/Cholera, Viral Hepatitis, Worm infestation, Diarrhoea, Dysentery etc. to Epidemiology Unit of NDMC, Palika Kendra, New Delhi.

What are the economic effects of waterborne illnesses?

The disease causes incapacitation to the patient who is unable to perform his regular work, resulting in economic loss to the patient. The disease occurs in rural areas with inadequate safe drinking water supply and peaks during the summer season when there is a scarcity of water.

Are there any diseases that are not caused by water pollution?

There are other diseases, which could be water related but not transmitted by the faeco-oral route e.g. malaria, leptospirosis etc. Water gets contaminated under poor hygienic and in-sanitary conditions.

Are water borne and water related diseases seasonal in nature?

While cases of water borne diseases may occur throughout the year, a seasonal increase is noted in the summer, monsoon and post-monsoon period. The risk of large outbreaks of water-borne and water related diseases increases following heavy rains.

What is the global impact of waterborne diseases?

Waterborne diseases continue to take a heavy toll on the global community, with developing nations, and particularly young children carrying most of the burden of morbidity and mortality.

Why is water quality declining worldwide?

Unfortunately, declining water quality threatens the health of ecosystems and humans worldwide 2. Various factors influence this deterioration, including population growth, rapid urbanization, land use, industrial discharge of chemicals, and factors resulting from climate change.

What is the Global Epidemiology Unit for water related disease?

The lead global epidemiology unit for water-related disease in CDC’s National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. Mission: Providing expertise and interventions aimed at saving lives and reducing illness by improving global access to healthy and safe water, adequate sanitation, and improved hygiene.

How many waterborne and foodborne disease outbreaks occur each year?

From 2015 to 2019, a total of 2,815 waterborne and foodborne disease outbreaks involving 48,032 cases were reported to the KCDC (Figure 1). There was an increase from 2015 to 2018, but the number of outbreaks decreased in 2019.

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