A Comparative Analysis Of The Performance Of Students In Mock And WASSCE Examinations In Agricultural Science In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Selected Secondary Schools In Markurdi Benue State)

Agricultural Education Project and Seminar Material

A Comparative Analysis Of The Performance Of Students In Mock And WASSCE Examinations In Agricultural Science In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Selected Secondary Schools In Markurdi Benue State)


Abstract


This study is on a comparative analysis of the performance of student in mock and WASSCE examination in agricultural science in Nigeria. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary school in markudi local government of Benue state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Academic performance has been described as the scholastic standing of a student at a given moment. This scholastic standing could be explained in terms of the grades obtained in a course or groups of courses (Daniels and Schoulen, 1970). Simkins (1981) commented on this scholastic standing and argued that performance is a measure of output and that the main outputs in education are expressed in terms of learning, that is, changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes of individuals as a result of their experiences within the school’s system.Mock has been the popular form of Examination conducted to help prepare students for these external examinations. But mock examinations conducted both at school and sectorial levels have been criticized by many scholars as being biased and subject to teacher’s manipulations which makes it inadequate to be used to predict the performance of students in external Examinations. Students are not being judged equally as different types of Mock Examinations are conducted by teachers in various schools and different senatorial districts. There is no uniformity of examinations taken by students to prepare them for the same external examinations. Standards differ from school to school and from district to district. The items in these Mock examinations conducted at school and district levels are not standardized to ascertain the psychometric properties of the items. This makes the examination unparallel with the external examinations that are developed in a standard form by experts which have known psychometric properties. To better strengthen the preparedness of students for the external examinations, government repackaged mock examination to be conducted centrally and in the same examination conditions as these external examinations. It is taken in the first term of SS III. The examination papers are equally marked centrally by teachers. Recently, the result of the mock examination was published and given out to students and could be accessed on the internet which is different from the usual practice of keeping the results with the school principals. All these are done by the government to equip the students for the public (eternal) Examinations. Public examinations are viewed as external school examinations opened to the general public and conducted by examination bodies using tests that have known psychometric properties. These are better developed than the ones prepared by the teachers in the school setting (Adeyegbe, 2004). The examinations are the sense that the examining boards conducting these examinations did not themselves prepare students for the examinations.Agricultural Science acquired the status of a vocational subject and it is one of the elective subjects students can choose at senior secondary school levels. This is to enable interested students to acquire practical agricultural skills that would make them self-reliant in future. Moreover, this would boost Nigeria’s food productivity. In spite of all these policies and programmes, records of the West African Examination Council (WAEC), a major examination body in the West African sub-region, showed that Agricultural Science results are generally poor in Nigeria. On this background the researcher wants to investigate on a comparative analysis of the performance of student in mock and WASSCE examination in agricultural science in Nigeria


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Poor performance of students in Agricultural Science examinations has been a major source of concern for decision makers on the Nigerian economy and stakeholders in the Agricultural education sector. This poor performance has been attributed to several factors. These included students’ poor attitude to the subject, lack of innovative teaching techniques, inadequate funding and inadequate farmlands to practice Agriculture Science. Also, a huge percentage of those that studied Agricultural Science in schools are either unemployed or are not practicing what they learnt in school and their poor WASSCE examination result.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the relationship between performance of student in mock examination and performance of student in WASSCE examination in agricultural science
  2. To ascertain the challenges facing effective teaching and learning of Agricultural Science in public secondary schools that causes poor WASSCE examination result
  3. To ascertain the relationship between academic performance of students in Agricultural Science and their attitudes to the subject

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: there is no relationship between performance of student in mock examination and performance of student in WASSCE examination in agricultural science
    H1: there is relationship between performance of student in mock examination and performance of student in WASSCE examination in agricultural science.
  2. H02: there are no challenges facing effective teaching and learning of Agricultural Science in public secondary schools that causes poor WASSCE examination result
    H2: there are challenges facing effective teaching and learning of Agricultural Science in public secondary schools that causes poor WASSCE examination result

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will give clear insight on a comparative analysis of the performance of student in mock and WASSCE examination in agricultural science in Nigeria. The study will be beneficial to educational sector, students, teachers, lecturers and the general public. The study will come with ideas on modern teaching method of agricultural science and the practical knowledge. The study will serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers a comparative analysis of the performance of student in mock and WASSCE examination in agricultural science n Nigeria. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities


1.7 Definition of Terms

Performance of Student:

Self-assessment: Student self-assessment is the process of students using specific criteria to evaluate and reflect on their own work. In doing so, students become more responsible for their own learning and may be more prepared to work with the teacher to develop individual learning goals.

Mock Examination:

Mock examination in British or mock exam. An examination, esp in a school, taken as practice before an official examination. The marks in the mock A level exams were disappointing.

WASSCE:

The West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) is a type of standardized test in West Africa. It is administered by the West African Examinations Council. It is only offered to candidates residing in Anglophone West African countries

Examination:

A test or examination is an assessment intended to measure a test-takers knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics

Agricultural Science:

Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain a comparative analysis of the performance of student in mock and WASSCE examination in agricultural science in Nigeria

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of performance of student in mock and WASSCE examination in agricultural science in Nigeria


5.2 Summary

This study was on a comparative analysis of the performance of student in mock and WASSCE examination in agricultural science in Nigeria. Three objectives were raised which included: To ascertain the relationship between performance of student in mock examination and performance of student in WASSCE examination in agricultural science, to ascertain the challenges facing effective teaching and learning of Agricultural Science in public secondary schools that causes poor WASSCE examination result, to ascertain the relationship between academic performance of students in Agricultural Science and their attitudes to the subject. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary school in markudi local government of Benue state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

The major challenges confronting effective teaching and learning of Agricultural Science in public schools in the local government area are inadequate farmlands for practical lessons, inadequate funds to manage practical-oriented Agricultural Science, the inability of students to regularly practice on farms and the use of traditional methods of teaching. The proposed solutions to the challenges included, among others, provision of adequate farm lands, provision of avenues and resources for teachers to update their knowledge and proper motivation of Agricultural Science teachers through improved working conditions.


5.4 Recommendation

The findings revealed that most of the student respondents found practical oriented Agricultural Science interesting and fascinating. Therefore, we recommend that students should be exposed to the practical aspects of the subject using modern technology. Thus, teachers should be creative and innovative while teaching Agricultural Science students in class so as to be able to sustain students’ interest in the subject. Most of the respondents believed that the number of students who take Agricultural Science is few. Therefore, we recommend that awareness campaigns on the socio-economic importance of Agricultural Science as a vocational subject should be intensified. This may lead to better perception of the subject by students at the secondary school level. Poor funding was one of the challenges identified. Therefore, government should provide adequate human resources, infrastructural facilities and relevant instructional materials for the teaching and learning of Agricultural Science.


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