Comparative Analysis Of Home-Made Juice Produced From Pine Apple And Pawpaw And Determination Of Their Nutritional Values

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Comparative Analysis Of Home-Made Juice Produced From Pine Apple And Pawpaw And Determination Of Their Nutritional Values


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to Study

Fruit contains many beneficial qualities to one’s health as they provide an abundance of vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants and fibres which are all essential for human diet (Klee, 2010). Many people consume fruit juices on a daily basis, as it is becoming an important part of the modern diet in many communities. It acts as a nutritious beverage and can play a significant part in a healthy diet because they offer a variety of nutrients found naturally in fruits (Cleveland, 2006). However, they may also have high sugar content. Although the sugar is natural, it may not be healthy in high quantities. It is suggested that too much sugar could pose harmful health effects as people could develop diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and other complications from excess consumption (Muraki, et al., 2013). Bottled fruit juices is criticized by its concentration or additionally supplemented sugars and contributing the extra calories when consumed in excess (Gormaker, 2008) and in plight of this, companies have contemporarily been marketing fruit juices with “no sugar added” feature in part to address the concern of exceeding the daily recommendation of sugar intake.

The comparison of the sugar content in freshly extracted fruit juice with the sugar content in bottled fruit juice claiming to have “no sugar added” is of interest for a number of reasons. If the sugar content in bottled fruit juice is higher than that of freshly extracted fruit juice, people may want to reconsider the amount of commercially bottled fruit juice they consume.

Fructose is one of the most abundant sugars in fruit juice. Some people believe fructose is healthier than sucrose because it is found naturally in fruit, however it can be equally harmful (Bazzano, Joshipura, and Hu, 2008).

Fructose, also known as fruit sugar, is a simple monosaccharide absorbed directly into the blood stream during digestion. Fruit, vegetables, and honey are all natural sources of fructose. Crystalline fructose, high fructose corn syrup, and sucrose are all three common forms of fructose. Excessive amounts of fructose consumption have been tied to negative health effects. The ever increasing occurrence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease could be a result of excessive fructose intake as well. Also, fructose may promote the formation of glycotoxins, which may contribute to diabetes, the aging process, and the thickening of the arterial walls (Gaby, 2005).

Sugar content varies depending on the type of fruit. All fruit juices contain fructose, but vary in their amount of sucrose, glucose and sorbitol. Fruit with low sugar content include lemon, lime and blackberry. Fruits with low to medium sugar content include papaya, watermelon and apple. Fruits that are considered to have high sugar content include grape, mango, pineapple, and banana. In general, the level of sugar in the juice of a fruit is correlated to the level of sugar in the fruit itself. It is also relevant to know that not all fruits are made into juices. Some of the fruits made into natural and commercially bottled juices include watermelon, apple, orange, grape, pomegranate, pineapple, papaya, cranberry, sugarcane, and lime.

Fruit juice in moderate amounts can help adults meet daily recommendation for fruit consumption, nutrient intake, and calories (Nicklas and Kleinman, 2011). Maintaining the required blood glucose level among adults is of utmost importance, so as to enable all parts of their body (brain, liver, muscle, and heart) function effectively. In light of this, it is important for adults who are constantly exposed to various stressors which lead to depletion of their energy level, resort to the consumption of fruit juices which is a ready source of energy to maintain their carbohydrate metabolism.

However, adults may prefer fruit juices over whole fruit because they offer good taste and the way fruit juices are packaged friendly in such a way that solve the anaesthetics of adults and as oppose by the strenuous and rigorous processes of peeling, washing, and cutting of whole fruit before their consumption. Juices are the perfect fast food for today’s eat-on-the-run lifestyle.


1.2 Aim

  1. To compare the effect of natural and commercial fruit juices on blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma-Ughelli.

1.3 Objectives

  1. To find out if natural and commercial fruit juices has the same effect on blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma Ughelli.
  2. To find out if there is a significant difference between the effect of natural and commercial fruit juices on blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma-Ughelli.

1.4 Hypothesis

  1. H0: Natural fruit juice does not increase blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma-Ughelli.
    H1: Natural fruit juice increases blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma-Ughelli. B.
  2. H0: Commercial fruit juice does not increase blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma-Ughelli.
    H1: Commercial fruit juice increases blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma-Ughelli.

1.5 Statement of Problem

Natural fruits are one of the healthiest foods we can consume, relatively loaded with vitamins, minerals and free radical antioxidant. Fruit juices on the other hand are also often perceived as being healthy; this is understandable given that it has the word fruit in it. To date, several studies have been conducted to compare the effects of natural and commercial fruit juices on blood glucose level, but the results have been conflicting and entirely inconsistent. Some studies found that natural and commercial fruit juices does not have thesame effect on blood glucose level, while other findings suggested that natural and commercial fruit juices increases bood glucose level and other studies have also found that natural and commercial fruit juices might not equally be associated with increased blood glucose level. Therefore this research work is aimed at comparing the effect of natural and commercial fruit juice on the blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology Ofuoma-Ughelli.


Comparative Analysis Of Home-Made Juice Produced From Pine Apple And Pawpaw And Determination Of Their Nutritional Values


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Discussion

The result of our study shows that natural fruit juice does not increase blood glucose level. This is evident in the T-value of 1.56, less than the T-critical value 0f 1.960 (P > 0.05). Our result corresponds with that of other studies carried out to compare the effect of natural fruit juice on blood glucose level. In one of such study by Muraki, et al. (2013), it was suggested that natural fruit juice decreases blood glucose level (P >0.05). The study of Bazzano, et al. (2008), found that consuming natural fruit juice of the corressponding fruit was associated with reduced effect on blood glucose level (P >0.05).The reason for the decrease in blood glucose level maybe accounted for by the freshness and absence of additionally supplemented sugars and preservatives.

In contrast, the study by Wang, et al. (2012) reported that consumption of natural fruit juices did not show a signicant decrease in the impact of natural fruit juices on blood glucose level of participants (P <0.05). Another study by Enab, et al. (2013), suggested that natural fruit juices increases blood glucose level (P <0.05). Also, the study by Cooper, et al. (2012) found the association between natural fruit juices and blood glucose level, did not show a significant reduction in blood glucose level of participants (P <0.05).

Our study also found that commercial fruit juices increases blood glucose level (P <0.05). Our findings is in agreement with the study by Enab, et al. (2013), who suggested that commercial fruit juice significantly increase blood glucose level (P <0.05). The findings of Jasmine, (2012) found that consumption of commercial fruit juice increase blood glucose (P <0.05). Our findings is not in line with the result of the study carried out by Muraki, et al. (2013) and Bazzano, et al. (2008), who both reported that consumption of commercial fruit juice was found to significantly increase blood glucose level (P >0.05). The reason for the increase in blood glucose level by commercial fruit juices maybe because of the additionally supplemented sugars and preservatives added by manufacturers of commercially bottled fruit juices.

The reason for the variation of our result with other studies may be because of some predisposing factors such as age, lifestyle, location, diet, occupation, social and economic status, glycemic load of fruit juices, menopausal status, oral contraceptive use, etc.

Conclusively, juicing extracts the juice from fresh fruits. The resulting liquid contains most of the vitamins, minerals and plant chemicals (phytonutrient) found in whole fruit. However, whole fruits also have healthy fiber which is lost during juicing and accounts for rapid absorption and increase in blood glucose level when natural fruit juices are consumed. If a commercially produced juice is to be bought from a juicing stand or store, pasteurized product should be selected. It should be also kept in mind that these juices may contain more sugar than we think since they do not contain fibres and may have been supplemented with sugars and preservatives which tend to increase blood glucose level significantly.

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