Comparative Analysis Of Federalism And Natural Resource Management In Nigeria And South Africa (1960-2010)

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

Comparative Analysis Of Federalism And Natural Resource Management In Nigeria And South Africa (1960-2010)


Abstract


The history of mankind in all generation has been a struggle dominated by the need to enhance his material condition either as an individual or as a collectivity. The struggle for material condition has led to the evolution of different types of political systems, which include federalism. Importantly, each state is endowed with different kinds of natural resources, which has engendered development in some states and underdevelopment in others. While scholars have made substantial contributions on the nature, structure, dynamism and economics of federalism, very little efforts has been directed to a comparative analysis of the impact of the structure of federalism on revenue allocation and the management of natural resources in Nigeria and South Africa. In particular, this study attempts to resolve the following puzzles as delineated: (i) how does the structure of federalism impact on the pattern of revenue allocation among the constituent units in Nigeria and South Africa? (ii) Do the proceeds from natural resources exploitation in Nigeria and South Arica adequately enhance the provision of basic social amenities? (iii) Does the role of the state in Nigeria engender conflict in resource access and management in contradistinction to the role of the state in South Africa?

The study adopted the documentation method of data collection. The study also adopted the basic propositions emanating from the Marxian political economy approach, which are applicable to Nigeria and South African social formations as our theoretical framework of analysis. Among other things, the study revealed that the unbalanced structure of the Nigerian federalism impact disproportionately on the revenue allocated to the component units, while the structure of the South African federalism enhances equitability in revenue allocations. The study also observed that the proceeds from the exploitation of natural resources did not adequately impact on the provision of basic social amenities in both Nigeria and South Africa. The study recommend for the restructuring of Nigerian Federalism with a-three-tier government based on the existing 6 geo-political zones as the federating units. Again, the government should enact law that ensures that proceeds from natural resource exploitation are used to provide basic social amenities to the entire political system, but particularly to the region of extraction.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the comparative analysis of federalism and natural resource management in Nigeria and South Africa (1960-2010).The study specifically was aimed at highlighting how the structure of federalism impact on the pattern of revenue allocation among the constituent units in Nigeria and South Africa,to ascertain whether the proceeds from natural resource exploitation in Nigeria and South Africa adequately enhance the provision of basic social amenities,to explore whether the role of the state in Nigeria engender conflict in resource access and management in contradistinction to the role of the state in South Africa.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. That the structure of federalism in Nigeria in which South-East account for 12.27%; North-East 14.47%; North-Central including FCT 15.63%; South-South 15.89%; South-West 17.70% and North-West 24.03% disproportionately influenced revenue allocation among the component units on the basis of equality of states in a corresponding order. Particularly of note is the divergence in structural terms between North-West and South-East, which also impacted on the revenue allocated to the two Geo-Political Zones in Nigeria. On the other hand, the structure of South African federalism in which the number of District Municipalities in Eastern Cape account for 11.36%; North Cape 9.09; Free State 11.36%; Gauteng 11.36%; KwaZulu-Natal 15.90%; Limpopo 11.36; Mpumalanga 9.09%; North West 9.09% and West Cape 13.63% enhanced equitability in revenue allocation.
  2. That the proceeds from natural resource exploitation in Nigeria derived from its average contribution of 16.19% to the GDP for the period under study did not adequately impact on the provision of electricicty supply, educational and health facilities. Similarly, the proceeds from the exploitation of natural resources in South Africa derived from its average contribution of 3.02% to the GDP for the period under study did not adequately impact on the provision of electricity supply, educational and health facilities.
  3. That the role of the state in granting public ownership of natural resources, particularly, to the Multinational Corporations at the expense of the oil-bearing states engendered conflict in resource access while its role in the management of proceeds from natural resources did not engender conflict in Nigeria. On the other hand, the role of the state in granting and protecting private access and management of natural resources in South Africa did not engender conflict.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. We recommend for the restructuring of Nigerian Federalism with a-three-tier government based on the existing 6 geo-political zones as the federating units (federal, states and local governments). Since the finding of this study is that the structure of Nigeria federalism is inequitably distributed among the component units; and since the grouping of Nigeria into geo-political zones appear to be generally acceptable, it then follows that the restructuring of Nigeria into six state derived from the six geo-political zones will solve the problem of unbalanced federal structure and reduce the problem of disproportionate revenue allocated to different zones. Again, this restructuring of Nigeria federalism into geo-political zones as the federating units creates a further sense of equality, equity and justice because the North-South divide will approximate equality. Again, in order to solve the problem of unbalanced structure of Nigerian federalism which undermined equitability in revenue allocation, the federating units (states) shall be responsible for creating and catering for as many local governments as they desire. On the other hand, while South Africa shall consolidate on the existing equitable structure of district municipalities, we recommend for a uniform local government system.
  2. The government should enact law that ensures that certain percentage (%) of proceeds derived from natural resource exploitation are used to provide basic social amenities to the entire political system, but particularly to the region(s) of extraction in both Nigeria and South Africa. Since law on its own cannot enforce itself, the government should make the institutions that enforce laws to be strong enough to do its job by not interfering in its processes. If there are strong institutions, then any law regarding the use of proceeds from natural resource exploitation to provide basic social amenities can adequately be enforced.

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