A Comparative Analysis Of Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation And Dream FM Report On Gender Based Violence In Ebonyi State

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A Comparative Analysis Of Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation And Dream FM Report On Gender Based Violence In Ebonyi State


Abstract


In this study, our focus was on the Comparative Analysis Of Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation And Dream Fm Report On Gender Based Violence In Ebonyi State. The study is was specifically focused on Examining how Radio stations present Gender-based violence issues; Ascertaining the extent of coverage of gender-based violence in Nigeria; Finding out the perceptions of Abakaliki residents towards Ebonyi broadcasting corporation and dream FM coverage of gender- based violence in Nigeria and Examining the influence of Radio stations coverage of gender-based violence issues on Ebonyi residents.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 390 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are residents of Abakaliki Ebonyi State. From the findings, majority of the respondents (51.3%) were of the opinion that Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation and Dream Fm do not cover Gender-based violence issues frequently. Based on these findings, the study recommend that there is need to strategise ways that will facilitate the prominence of GBV stories on the radio stations where all genders are well covered and given prominence in order to aid listeners in understanding the issues of GBV.



Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms
  • 1.9 Organizations of the study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Interpretation of Result

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The term ‘gender’ refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. This may however be confused with ‘sex’, but while sex refers to the biological distinction between male and female, gender is a cultural distinction. Gender-based violence can also be used to refer to violence experienced by men as a result of their gender and so does not specifically refer solely to violence experienced by women. However, it is a term that is used broadly throughout the world and the use of the word ‘gender’ initiates thinking about the differences in the ways that women and men experience, and are subject to, violence particularly from someone known to them.

The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (UNDEVW) describes violence as “a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over, the discrimination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women,” and as “one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men”. Women’s lack of social and economic power, accepted gender roles and the low value put on women’s work perpetuate and reinforce this subordinate position. Early marriage, inheritance of widows and male control of property encourage female dependency, particularly in regions with high under and unemployment of women and poor access to social welfare Services and limit women’s ability to escape violent situations.

There is lack of information on accurate estimates of the magnitude of physical and Sexual violence against married women in Nigeria largely due to violence being unreported; and in most cases, those reported are not recorded by authorities. Information provides stimulus for all thought and actions of human beings. According to Olawu (2014) sited in Akarika, Iwok & Ikon (2019) information entails data, facts, imaginations, ideas, opinion, cultural values in a variety of media which include print, audio visual materials and electronic processors. The Amnesty International (2002) report titled: “Rape – The Invisible Crime”, noted that victims of rape in Nigeria had an enormous problem persuading the police and other prosecuting authorities that they had actually been raped. The victims had to prove that they did not consent to the act, or that their agreement was obtained through threats. Also because of the stigma attached to sexual abuse in many Nigerian cultures, women blame themselves and fear that they will be ostracised from society if they admit to being sexually abused (IRIN, 2017), and thus continue to suffer in silence. Hence, the available statistics may not reflect the actual prevalence. However, Men experience violence perpetrated by women, though theirs is not alarming.

Surveys conducted by women’s organisations have shown that the media portray gender stereotypes that are detrimental to women and that can impact negatively on the attitudes towards violence against women. However, because mass media communications reach and influence large numbers of people, they also have the potential to play a positive role in the struggle against violence against women (Pickup, Williams, and Sweetman 2011). The vital role played by the print media in the society is of pivotal importance in confronting gender-based violence. One of the roles is creating awareness, in this case, issues to do with gender-based violence in the society. The media also updates the readers on what is currently going on. Another role of print media is to reflect the public opinion on broad issues, mostly through the letters to the editor. Readers are able to let known how they feel on issues on GBV and how the government may deal with these issues.

Gender-based violence knows no boundaries, and cuts across racial, ethnic, class, age, economic, religious and cultural divides. It takes place everywhere in society. In Nigeria, like in most African societies, domestic violence is gendered and culturally patterned. Within the prevailing norms, it can be argued that the husband has the right to control his wife as he deems appropriate (Amnesty International, 2002; IRIN, 2017). Challenging the social attitudes and beliefs is of great importance in solving the problem of gender-based violence (GVRC, Annual Report 2011-2012).

Gender-based violence knows no boundaries, and cuts across racial, ethnic, class, age, economic, religious and cultural divides. It takes home everywhere in society. Though women comprise the largest number of victims, a Non-governmental organization based in Nigeria to fight for the rights of men and which exclusively focuses on battered men. This may not necessarily be able to deal with all issues to do with the boy child, and thus GBV amongst boys and men still remains an ignored issue and may go unattended to. The inclusion of men in the gender-based violence has been largely ignored but should be paramount to intervention program implementation.

The dominant myth and expectation is that the media are neutral and objective and journalists are guided mostly by the code of conduct in their reporting of issues of gender- based violence. This is not always the case and thus each journalist brings to the newsroom his/her views, opinion, beliefs and attitudes. These essentially inform the way in which the journalists view a particular issue. Thus the media are not passive transmitters of information to society but are sources of information that come with value judgments.

Based on these observations, this research seeks to examine the comparative analysis of Ebonyi broadcasting corporation and dream FM report on gender based violence in Ebonyi state.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The radio plays a very important tool in fighting gender-based violence because it not only reports on society but also helps in shaping the public opinion and perception. The media calls attention to social problem and issues and thereby hold leaders and even members of the society accountable. Radio stations are far-reaching and an authoritative source of information. It is no doubt that media coverage matters and is very important in shaping all matters. Thus whatever media primes or sets as an agenda, affects people’s way of viewing that issue.

The dominant myth and expectation is that media is neutral and objective and that journalists are guided mostly by the code of conduct in their reporting of issues of gender-based violence. This is not always the case and thus each journalist brings to the newsroom his/her views, opinion, beliefs and attitudes. These essentially inform the way in which the journalists view a particular issue. Thus media is not a passive transmitter of information to society but a source of information that comes with value judgements.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

the main objective of this study is to carry out a comparative analysis of Ebonyi broadcasting corporation and dream FM report on gender based violence in Ebonyi state. The specific objectives of this study were as follows:

  1. Examine how Radio stations present Gender-based violence issues.
  2. Ascertain the extent of coverage of gender-based violence in Nigeria.
  3. Find out the perceptions of Abakaliki residents towards Ebonyi broadcasting corporation and dream FM coverage of gender- based violence in Nigeria.
  4. Examine the influence of Radio stations coverage of gender-based violence issues on Ebonyi residents.

1.4 Research Questions

The study seeks to address the following research questions:

  1. How does Nigerian Radio stations present gender-based violence issues?
  2. To what extent do Radio stations cover gender-based violence in Nigeria?
  3. What are the perceptions of Abakaliki residents towards Radio stations coverage of gender- based violence in Nigeria?
  4. How does Radio stations coverage of gender-based violence influence Abakaliki residents?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Addressing GBV is at the centre of economic and social development in Nigeria. Nigeria’s vision 2030 and mid-term plan 2008-2012 identifies gender-based violence as a social vice that needs to be addressed to reduce danger disparities and address associated vulnerabilities. In tandem with Vision 2030, National Commission on Gender and Development (NCGD) strategic plan 2008-2012 identifies ‘to institutionalize and strengthen gender-based violence response and prevention through coordination and policy advice’ as one of its key objectives (Policy Brief No.2 of NCGD).

Female-focused violence represents a hidden obstacle to economic and social development. By sapping women’s energy, undermining their confidence, and compromising their health, gender violence deprives society of women’s full participation. United Nations Fund for Women (UNIFEM) observed that “women cannot lend their labor or creative ideas fully if they are burdened with the physical and psychological scars of abuse” (Carrillo, 1992).


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study was based on analyses of all articles on gender-based violence for one year (2013) covered in the Ebonyi broadcasting corporation and dream FM. One of the limitations is not being able to compare the coverage the articles on GBV for different years. Another limitation was the fact that since the study was only on Ebonyi broadcasting corporation and dream FM there was no room for comparison.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the course of my research, some factors limited my scope of the study.

Time Constraints:

Time constraint alludes to the impediments on the beginning and end of a project. There is a deadline attached to this study. Therefore, the time available to study the research problem change over time as it is obliged by the deadline of the study.

Sample Bias:

While in a quest of both primary and secondary research, a series of challenges were experienced as a result of restricted access to the appropriate type and geographic scope of participants.

Response and Willingness:

When researching topics that deal with peoples’ personal life and privacy, the victims of such cases are most of the time not willing to open up and don’t feel comfortable talking about their past as it may trigger their mental trauma.


1.8 Definition of Terms

In this study, the following terms were conceptualised as:-

Cultural Background:

Refers to all the things and activities that make peoples entire way of life but in this study the term was used to refer to the ethnicity of the respondents.

Domestic Violence:

Any act of violence that result in or is likely to result in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women or men, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, and that which occurs within a home setting

Education:

This is the process of acquiring knowledge and skills either formally in a school setting or informally through observation and experience from the society.

Gender Based Violence:

Is violence involving men and women, which is derived from unequal power relationships between men and women.

Gender:

Refers to differences between men and women in socio-cultural aspects rather than physical differences only and consequently society assigns different roles to men and women.

Management Strategies of Gender-Based Domestic Violence:

Methods adopted by individuals or a community to cope with or resolve problems of gender-based violence

Mental Health Status:

This term refers to the state of mind in clinical terms where a person may have a stable mind or be a victim of a mental disorder or disease. In the study the term was used to classify respondents in accordance to this definition but on the basis of personal history and any previous clinical diagnosis.


1.9 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the Comparative Analysis Of Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation And Dream Fm Report On Gender Based Violence In Ebonyi State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the Comparative Analysis Of Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation And Dream Fm Report On Gender Based Violence In Ebonyi State. The study is was specifically focused on Examining how Radio stations present Gender-based violence issues; Ascertaining the extent of coverage of gender-based violence in Nigeria; Finding out the perceptions of Abakaliki residents towards Ebonyi broadcasting corporation and dream FM coverage of gender- based violence in Nigeria and Examining the influence of Radio stations coverage of gender-based violence issues on Ebonyi residents.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 390 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are residents of Abakaliki Ebonyi State.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;

The prominence given to the reportage of Gender-based violence issues by Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation and Dream Fm cannot help in ameliorating the trend, thus the media need to dedicate enough print space for the coverage of GBV issues in Nigeria. Many years ago, gender issues drew little or no attention from scholars, researchers, the mass media and even the society at large, but with industrial revolution and explosion in population, gender-based realities have dawned on humanity and have crept into every facet of human life, thus the need for greater radio coverage of GBV issues in Nigeria.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following recommendations:

  1. Nigerian radio should dedicate more time to Gender-based violence issues just as they do to political issues, and stories of Gender-based violence should be made prominent rather than inconsequential (for instance, putting a GBV story on the centre spread.)
  2. There is an urgent need for stakeholders like the universities that train journalists to establish education and training strategies for journalists on GBV issues to enhance their reporting.

5.5 Suggestion for Further Research

Framing of GBV issues in the daily news with a comparison of different dailies is an area that further research can be taken up.

Another area is the comparison on the prevalence of gender-based violence in the rural and urban areas.


A Comparative Analysis Of Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation And Dream FM Report On Gender Based Violence In Ebonyi State


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A Comparative Analysis Of Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation And Dream FM Report On Gender Based Violence In Ebonyi State


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Frequently Asked Questions


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