Community Associations And Conflict Management Strategies In Anambra State, Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material Under Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution

Community Associations And Conflict Management Strategies In Anambra State, Nigeria


Abstract


This project work was an insight into the Community Associations And Conflict Management Strategies In Anambra State, Nigeria. After independence, Nigeria leaders were faced with the challenge of ensuring an economically, politically, and socio-cultural strong united and invisible Nigeria. This task would not be left for the elected state leaders alone hence the need for the community associations to play significant roles for accomplishment of this task. Interviews were conducted from the data collected and secondary documents consulted, it was revealed that community associations have played an important part in Nigeria development. The population of the study was the entire community associations in Nigeria with particular reference to community associations were now that we need them most.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

For a proper analysis and understanding of the cultural and historical basis of community associations, one has to accept to the fact that every society has its cultural heritage and value. Even in the developed world, modernization has not completely erased the cultural of the people in Nigeria, one of the cultural heritages in community associations. It is obvious that, there has been an evolution through the years on places of community associations and the roles they are expected to play in our national development. The above notwithstanding, community associations in different peoples in the Nigeria colonial and post colonial Nigeria, the traditional ruler ships institution seems to be the most enduring pre-colonial institution that survived through forms of administration in modern Nigeria.

Disputes are an integral part of human nature which dates back to the origin of man. This is so because human beings live in families, hamlets, villages and in large communities. As they interact amongst themselves, disputes are likely to occur. Since we are created differently and can hardly share the same view, there is bound to be divergent opinions as when friends or members of a family disagree, or as what countries or states hold tenaciously, views that are diametrically opposed. In traditional African society, conflicts are common phenomena among communities, families and individuals. Africa as a continent has diversity of cultural and religious practices. This diversity affects the approaches to dispute and conflict management in the traditional setting. Apparently, the approach tends to differ from the Western dispute management in several respects. Even then, in Africa itself, the approach may also differ from one culture to another. Igbo traditional African society has a wellorganized and systematic conflict resolution strategy. It is a healing process in which all stakeholders contribute positive energy. These stakeholders range from family heads, the council of elders, or chiefs, religious leaders, leaders of age-grades, umuada and to umunna. Igbo people initially had neither chiefs nor kings who would manage their conflict, and would not wait for conflict to start before they control it; they rather had institutions for managing the suppression of weaker persons from the stronger. One of those institutions that resolve conflict in traditional Igbo society to date is the “umunna.”

Conflict management is the process by which two or more parties in conflict reach a peaceful resolution to a dispute. It is the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict. It can also be thought to encompass the use of nonviolent resistance measures by conflicted parties in an attempt to promote effective resolution. Shedrack (2014) sees conflict resolution as a sense of finality, where the parties to a conflict are mutually satisfied with the outcome of a settlement and the conflict is resolved in a true sense (p. 94). On the question, if conflict can truly be resolved? Shedrack avers that “some conflicts, especially those over resources, are permanently resolvable.” Conflict can be said to be resolved when the basic needs of the parties in conflict have been met and their fears defused. Conflict resolution can either aim at resolving or terminating conflicts in an open and predictable process in accordance with legal principles or focus on efforts to increase cooperation among the parties to a conflict and deepen their relationship by addressing the conditions that led to the dispute, fostering positive attitudes and allaying distrust through reconciliation initiatives, and building or strengthening the institutions and processes through which the parties interact.

Community associations or chieftaincy institutions in Nigeria have had a very chequered history. Before the advents of British colonial era, community associations exercised political authority in their respective communities in varying degree as provided by their tradition and custom during the colonial era. The role of community associations changed radically they became prime face rulers of their institution or communities under district commissioner, in the present Nigeria, the relevance and importance of community associations have been fluctuating. It is against this backdrop that this work tends to analysis the salient roles performed by community associations in national development and also to bring to limelight the relevance or otherwise of community associations to management of communal conflict in the present day Nigeria with particular reference to Dunukofia Local government Area of Anambra state.


1.2 Statement of Problem

In any developing nation like Nigeria, the task of putting in places sustainable political, economic and social, cultural status. For development is not always the work of one and or a particular group of people. It involves the entire stakeholder governance of which community associations are inclusive. (okoro 2016)

Community associations has prior to British institution in Nigeria been agents of development in their respective domains. They performed all functions needed for the management of communal conflict, following the institution into our political and economic system by the powers and relevance of these community associations dimished substantially. They were related to the background in the scheme of things and some were used in the exploitation and manipulation of the indigenous people. This is one reason why some scholars had argued for the scrapping of the community associationship in the east brought about cultural debasement of our culture. It was believed that following the independence of Nigeria, the community associations would regain its prominence and contribute effectively in building of a new Nigeria, but this has not been as envisaged, as the fortune of these community associations keeps on fluctuating from one regime to another. (moses, 2014)

There is also a continued debuted between and among scholars on the importance and relevance or otherwise of community associations in Nigeria development. As a nation in the pipeline, the task of building a formidable Nigeria should not be the duty of modern institution of governance alone, there are roles which community associations could play in management of communal conflict.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The purpose of this study is to bring to limelight of the efforts made by community associations in ensuring strong and united Nigeria through some salient roles they performed in society the research will also identify and highlight some obstacles militating against the contribution of community associations of community associations, is still relevant to Nigeria development.


1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the role community associations played in management of communal conflict?
  2. Do community associations create any impact in management of communal conflict?
  3. Is there any other way the community associations can contribute toward the management of communal conflict.
  4. Did the masses feel the impact made by traditional ruler in management of communal conflict?

1.5 Statement of Hypothesis

  1. Hi: Community associations has played a unifying role in management of communal conflict.
    Ho: Community associations has not played any unifying roles in management of communal conflict.
  2. Hi: People believe that religion is a cog to the wheel of politics in Nigeria.
    Ho: People do not believe that religion is a cog to the wheel of politics in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

To show the relevance of community associations to the modern Nigeria society especially in this period of our democracy.

The study will equally stress how community associations can effectively use their position to bring about social economic development.

This project will be useful to scholars who engage in African studies since it will provide first hand information about the contributions of community associations in management of communal conflict with particular reference to Owerri West

It can also serve as a useful material for undergraduates and post graduates alike.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The purpose of this study is to bring to limelight of the efforts made by community associations in ensuring strong and united Nigeria through some salient roles they performed in the society.

The research will also identify and highlight some obstacles militating against the contribution of community associations, is still relevant to Nigeria development.

The above issues among others are basic for the understanding of this research work.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The aim of this study is to state the impact made by the community associations in making sure that there is strong and united Nigeria through smart role they play in the society the research also identify some problem encounter by the community associations in management of communal conflict. It also states weather the community associations relevant to the development of Nigeria.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Tradition:

This the total of a people’s belief’s customs, values, ethnics, orientations, in the post which still exist in the present.

Institution:

It is a relationship or behavioural pattern of importance of a community or society which has been in existence of a long time.

Administration:

This is the management and directions of the affairs of government. It is the organization and direction of persons and resources to accomplish a desired end.

Community Associations and Management of Communal Conflict:

It is the application and use of a people beliefs customs, values which the people have come to accept as valid and positive in the running of the affairs of their society in order to ensure stability, growth and the accomplishment of desired goals.

Government:

It is the formal institution and processes through which building decision are made for a society and agency or machinery through which the desired of the state are realized.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1 Summary

The researcher tried to take an insight into the contribution of community associations in management of conflict, the problems they encountered and the importance or relevance of the institution of community associations to Nigeria development. The significance of the study was to show the relevance of community associations to the modern Nigeria society. It was also the objective of the study to being to limelight the efforts made by community associations in ensuring a strong and united Nigeria through some salient roles they performed in the society.

In the chapter two of the work, wisdom was borrowed from other scholarly works of many scholars. A critical review and analysis of these work used was applied because the society (Nigeria) was seen to be made up of modern and community associations (structures) which were working in unknown for the survival of the society.

Chapter three identified the research methods used in the collection and analysis, qualitative method was applied in data collecting analyzing of secondary documents and interviews and questionnaires were also used in data collection.

The population of the study was the community associations in Nigeria. The sample unit consisted of the community associations of Umudim selected elders and some important personalities. The study also had its limitations.

In chapter four, the data collected was presented interpreted work and analyzed.

The chapter five concluded the project work. Here, discussion of findings was made as well as the conclusion and recommendation.


5.2 Recommendation

The researcher hereby recommend that

  1. Community associations/leaders should be accorded their pride to place in the contemporary time to enable them perform their duties well.
  2. It is advice that community associations/rulers in the contemporary time should be democratic to ensure popular participation in the decision making in their various community.
  3. There should not be interfering of culture and tradition with the role of community associations in the management of communal conflict.
  4. Community associations and rulers should be discouraged from engaging in partisan politics.
  5. Cases in the communities should settle not only by the chief alone but also by the elders titled men, Eze’s and age grade.
  6. Community associations should stave to ensure that their contributions towards management of communal conflict are perfect.
  7. Community associations should also ensure that the laws of the communities are obeyed to pave nay for peace and security in their localities.
  8. Community associations should maintain condial relationship with the local government.
  9. Government should always adopt collective bargaining as a conflict resolution method.
  10. Finally, community associations should involve in rural development as their way of contributing to the management of communal conflict.
  11. Lastly, community associations should always respect government regulations when making local laws, this is to avoid conflict of state laws and local laws.

5.3 Conclusion

From the foregoing the research work was conducted in order to find our or examine the role of community associations in management of communal conflict. Meanwhile, on going through the research work, one must deduce the community associations play important role in management of communal conflict in the contemporary time through various functions they perform which include making local laws for the good governance of their respective communities, ensuring that the citizens obey laws of the government, maintenance of peace and security, receiving government dignitaries and conflict resolution among citizens and communities. Above all, to ensure that community associations contribute building, government must continue to assist them to enable them perform or give their best.


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