Combinatorial Activity Of M.O And J.C On Bacterial And Fungal Isolates
1.1 Background of the Study
Plants have been used for centuries before the advent of Orthodox medicine. Leaves, flowers, stems, roots, seeds, fruit and bark can all be constituents of herbal medicines. The medicinal values of these plants depend on their phytochemical components, which produces definite physiological actions on the human body. The most important of these phytochemicals are alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds (Afolabi et al., 2007; Okoronduet al, 2010). Moringa is the sole genus in the flowering plant family Moringaceae. The genus Moringain turn is made up of 12 species. Moringaoleiferais the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa and it is found in many tropical and sub-tropical regions (Sofowora, 1984). M. oleiferais cultivated and harvested in many areas of the world where other plants are unable to thrive and virtually every part of the Moringa tree can be used for food, medicine or put some other beneficial use (Farooq et al., 2007). The “Moringa” tree is grown mainly in semi-arid, tropical and subtropical areas. It grows best in dry sandy soil, tolerates poor soil, including coasted areas. M. oleifera, commonly referred to as the miracle tree, is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae. It is a fast growing and resistant shrub, native to India but now widely distributed in the tropics and subtropical areas (Oliver-Bever, 2000). In Nigeria, M. oleifera is encountered doing well in all ecological zones where it is always in season all the year round. The plant is propagated by both seeds and cuttings. The Moringa tree is grown mainly in semi-arid, tropical and subtropical areas. Today, it is widely cultivated in Africa, Central and South America, Sri- Lanka, India, Mexico, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. It is considered one of the World’s most useful trees, as almost every part of the Moringa tree can be used for food or has some other beneficial property (Fahey, 2005).
Jatrophacurcasis a plant which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae originated from Mexico and South Africa (Tint and Mya, 2009). The plant was introduced to Africa by the Portuguese in 1500 and was found growing sparsely in the wild in Nigeria and was use as hedge (Lozan, 2007). It is easy establish and grows relatively quickly producing seeds for 50 years. It is usually propagated by seed. (okorodunet al.,2013)
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Most Nigerians have misused the opportunity of Moringaoleifera and Jatrophacurcas in which it has become harzadous to the body system instead of becoming antimicrobial agent. Therefore this study intends to evaluate the combinatorial of M.oleifera and J. curcas on bacteria and fungi.
1.3 Aim of the Study
The aim of this study was to determine the combinatorial activity of M.o and J.c on bacterial and fungal isolates.
1.4 The Specific Objectives of this Study are:
- To determine the antimicrobial activity of Moringaoleifera and extract on some pathogenic bacteria and fungi.
- To investigate anti- microbial activity of Jatrophacurcas on some bacterial and fungal isolate s.
- Assess combinatorial activity of bacteria and fungi on Moringaoleifera and Jatrophacurcas, on some bacterial and fungal isolates
- Hi: There is no significant difference in the level of sensitivity pattern of some bacterial isolate on Moringaoleifera at different concentration.
- Ho: There is a significant difference in the level of sensitivity pattern of some bacterial isolate on Jatrophacurcas at concentration of 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625mg/ml
- Ho: There is a significant difference in the level of sensitivity pattern of Moringaoleifera and Jatrophacurcas to some bacterial and fungal isolate at different concentration.
The result of this investigation revealed that the leaf extracts of Moringaoleifera and Jatrophacurcas possesses appreciable antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcusaureus and Escherichiacoli. The extracts inhibited the growth of E.coli and S.sureus of various concentrations. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both leaf extracts on the test organisms ranged between 0.250mg.ml and 0.125.g/ml. Jabovska et al. (2003) reported that antimicrobials of plant origin are not usually associated with any side effects and have enormous therapeutic potentials to heal many infectious diseases. The results obtained showed that these secondary metabolites in the plant extracts are responsible for the inhibition of the test bacterial.
The effect of the different concentration of both plant extracts on the bacterial isolates with respect to the zone of inhibition gave a linearization response for both organisms. In general the extract showed a concentration dependent inhibition effect on the bacterial isolates. This finding correlates with the report of Ekpendu et al., 1994, Ogbede et al., 1997 and Aiyelagbe et al., 2001 who independently found that various plants inhibited the growth of some clinical bacterial isolates.
Jatrophacurcas leaves extract have the potential to be natural fungicide against fungal pathogens and Moringaoleifera leaves extract have the same potential to be natural bactericide against bacterial pathogens. Since this study was done under laboratory condition, further studies need to be done to determine if similar results could be obtained in vivo.
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