Collective Bargaining And Industrial Peace (A Case Study Of The Nigeria Railway Corporation, Eastern Division Enugu)
1.1 Background of the Study
Collective Bargaining has come to be recognized as one of the major column of industrial relations especial in the process of industrial democracy.
It plays an vital part in creating and sustaining industrial peace through early recognition of emergent areas of conflict and taking steps to remove them through dialogue and accord.
But the machinery of collective bargaining is often maltreat through non-adherence to the basic principles that guide the practice of collective bargaining.
Before going into Additional details, it might be proper to define collective bargaining in the context of this research work.
Collective bargaining has been defined as negotiations about work conditions and terms of employment between an employer, a group of employers organizations and one or more representative works organization with a view to rack an Accord. From the above definition, it would be seen that collective bargaining aims primarily at brining both parties in a working relationship together for the intention of reaching accords on their mutual relationship. In most cases, collective bargaining has been sight only as an indispensable tool for wage increases.
Even though ages characteristic conspicuous in collective accords, collective bargaining is necessary of the corporate survival of organization for it is supposed to deal with virtually all problems that might affect development of the organization.
Union produce security of employment for their members through collective bargaining or accord. They maintain and if possible raise wage levels of their members through collective bargaining with individual employers and the federation.
They play an vital part in controlling the problems of work provided the legal assistance for their members and also anxious with education and training political propaganda. It is equally indispensable to note that the stronger the union the stronger the union the stronger their bargaining strength and the more money they are likely to win for their members.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There have been strike actions over the years in Nigeria, more especially during the civilian regime resulting in lose of labour time and low level of productivity. The Nigeria union of railway in October 1986 went on strike action and had to their destinations by 12.00 mid might keeping their passengers stranded. Due to poor relationship between the top management and the operatives, many organizations have not been able to enjoy industrial peaces for a length of time.
In Nigeria, workers are not well provided with good working problems and when profits are made the workers are not adequately provided for.
Hence workers have held the opinion that their services are exploited.
An coverage Nigerian workers is a person who came to work lake and go home early because he still regards his kind of jobs as the white mains job. In contrast a Nigerian centerpieces is as hard hearted as shylock. He has an insatiable tendency towards profit, which he does not honestly declare to the inland Reveres and would like to pay no wages to the workers if he can avoid it. Lack of communication between the employers and the employees seriously affects industrial relations in the country.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The researcher intends to find out how effectively collectives bargaining has been working in various organization in the country with particular reference to the Nigeria Railway corporation,
Eastern Division – Enugu as a case study. It is the object of this researcher to substantiate whether the procedure for negotiations and settling trade Debate in Nigeria consequently followed and deviations, recommendations will be made.
This research is also conducted in partial fulfillment of the award of National Diploma (ND) in public Administration of the institute of management and technology, IMT, Enugu.
1.4 Important / Significant of the Study
The signification of this study cannot be over emphasized especially in an organization, which requires industrial accord for management. Employee’s relationship and high productivity. He study help to meet up with the selective harmony reached at the bargaining table and the management on the other hand so as to dodge slow downs, strike, etc, in order to maintain industrial accord.
- H0: Effective collective bargaining does not lead to industrial peace.
H1: Effective collective bargaining leads to industrial peace.
- H02: Effective communication between management and employees does not lead to industrial peace.
H2: Effective communication between management and employees leads to industrial peace.
1.7 Definition of Terms
1. Industrial Relation:
This is the relationship between the employers or management and employees, as individuals or as a group; between supervisor and the worker (s) and between worker and his trade union.
2. Trade – Union:
This is a continuous association of wages earners for the purpose of maintaining or supervising the conditions of their working lives.
This means Nigerian employers consultative Associations.
This is the difference between employees or between employers and workmen or worker and workmen.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the impact of collective bargaining and industrial peace
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the impact of collective bargaining and industrial peace
This study has examined the role and functions of collective bargaining and industrial peace in Nigeria. Workers all over the world desire recognition, better salaries and wages and great improvements in the terms and conditions of work. Workers have formed associations for the purpose of realizing this main objective. By forming associations and banding together workers have a more effective basis to realize improvements in working conditions. Both Nigerian Labour law and International law recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively for the protection of the legitimate interests of workers. Indeed, that the ILO has declared its support for collective bargaining as a means through which the protection of the economic and social interests of workers can be achieved. The main duty of trade unions is to represent the interest of their members in negotiations with the employer in order to achieve the desired improvements in working conditions. But this aim is sometimes frustrated by the employer. As we have seen, the natural reaction is to resort to industrial action to force the employer to accede to their demands. It is the failure of collective bargaining that justifies workers resort to industrial action.
The study has confirmed that the general perceived feelings of acceptance of collective bargaining as an important mechanism for managing conflicts related to terms of employment and working conditions in the Nigerian public sector organizations. It posits the overriding essence of collective bargaining as eschewing costly industrial conflicts and ensuring that compromises and agreements work for harmony to prevail in the working relationship between labour and management. The review of literature established collective bargaining as a rational process through which employers and employees attempt to reach cordial settlement that resolves a difference of preference. Thus, the device serves as a humanizing agent by restricting managerial prerogatives and unilateral actions exercised by management over their workers in labour related matters. Based on the findings of the study, it was revealed that collective bargaining has been relatively impotent in terms of performance suggesting practically its non – effectual status as a pathway to conflict management in Nigerian public sector organizations. So far, the cardinal adduced reasons from the data gathered in this study, amongst others, were the management reluctance to bargain in good faith and guileful posture of government to collective bargaining practice.
Management in Nigeria public organizations must as a matter of necessity imbibes the democratic culture upon which the ideals of collective bargaining rest. Both management and labour as social partners should also increase their capacities for effective collective bargaining practice by showing willingness and expanding cooperation to bargain in good faith in order to find common ground and resolve conflicts amicably. All the three tiers of government in Nigeria (local, state and federal) as employers of labour should abide with the provision of ILO standard and convention which they subscribed to by rectifying their asymmetrical patterns of collective bargaining approach in the public sector organizations in the country. Effective collective bargaining bears reasonable level of stable relationship between labour and management and further ensures better corporate performance. Thus, government should stop paying lip service to the use of collective bargaining and the mechanism should be given better prominence in the determination of employment conditions in the Nigerian public sector organizations.
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