Cloning Of A Computer System Unit

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering


Abstract


Over the year, it has become more easier to work on and even build your own computer system. Truly the world today has turn to be a computerized village, in spite of this what are individual doing to meet up the demands of their kind of computer system in terms of performance and productivity.

Our research, the first that deals entirely with customized coupling of a computer system prompts this suggestion that a computer system should be a customized coupled one in other to enhance the performance and productivity of any user.

Based on the interviews with about ten professional computer users on their views regarding customized coupled computer system, our research characterizes the goals that computer professional users are not performing maximally on a ready-made computer systems compare to a customized coupled computer system which suits their specifications and actually enhances their ability to achieve their desired goals. Therefore, these initial findings provide the basis for customized coupled computer system.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Front page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Historical Background

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Literature Review

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 System analysis and design
  • 3.2 System definition
  • 3.3 System components
  • 3.4 Maintenance tools

Chapter Four

  • 4.1 System implementation and maintenance
  • 4.2 Software installation
  • 4.3 Motherboard Resource Driver
  • 4.4 Operating System
  • 4.5 Applications
  • 4.6 Powering the system
  • 4.7 Installation of Support Devices
  • 4.8 Printers
  • 4.9 Scanners
  • 4.10 System maintenance

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Summary, Recommendations, and Conclusion
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Conclusion
  • References
  • Index

Chapter One


1.1 Introduction

The hardware are the parts of the computer itself including the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and related microchips and micro-circuitry, keyboards, monitors, case and drives (hard, CD, DVD, floppy, optical, tape, etc…). Other extra parts called peripheral components or devices include mouse, printers, modems, scanners, digital cameras and cards (sound, colour, video) etc… Together they are often referred to as a personal computer.

Central Processing Unit

Though the term relates to a specific chip or the processor a CPU’s performance is determined by the rest of the computer’s circuitry and chips. Currently the Pentium chip or processor, made by Intel, is the most common CPU though there are many other companies that produce processors for personal computers. Examples are the CPU made by Motorola and AMD. Speeds now exceed 3000+ MHz or 3 gigahertz (GHz) and different chip manufacturers use different measuring standards. It depends on the circuit board that the chip is housed in, or the motherboard, as to whether you are able to upgrade to a faster chip. The motherboard contains the circuitry and connections that allow the various components to communicate with each other.

Keyboard

The keyboard is used to type information into the computer or input information. There are many different keyboard layouts and sizes with the most common for Latin based languages being the QWERTY layout (named for the first 6 keys). The standard keyboard has 101 keys. Notebooks have embedded keys accessible by special keys or by pressing key combinations (CTRL or Command and P for example). Ergonomically designed keyboards are designed to make typing easier. Hand held devices have various and different keyboard configurations and touch screens. Some of the keys have a special use. They are referred to as command keys. The 3 most common are the Control (CTRL), Alternate (Alt) and the Shift keys though there can be more (the Windows key for example or the Command key). Each key on a standard keyboard has one or two characters. Press the key to get the lower character and hold Shift to get the upper.

Removable Storage and/or Disk Drives

All disks need a drive to get information off – or read – and put information on the disk – or write. Each drive is designed for a specific type of disk whether it is a CD, DVD, hard disk or floppy. Often the term ‘disk’ and ‘drive’ are used to describe the same thing but it helps to understand that the disk is the storage device which contains computer files – or software – and the drive is the mechanism that runs the disk.
Mouse – Most modern computers today are run using a mouse controlled pointer. Generally if the mouse has two buttons the left one is used to select objects and text and the right one is used to access menus. If the mouse has one button (Mac for instance) it controls all the activity and a mouse with a third button can be used by specific software programs.

Note: It is important to clean the mouse periodically, particularly if it becomes sluggish. A ball type mouse has a small circular panel that can be opened, allowing you to remove the ball. Lint can be removed carefully with a tooth pick or tweezers and the ball can be washed with mild detergent. A build up will accumulate on the small wheels in the mouse. Use a small instrument or finger nail to scrape it off taking care not to scratch the wheels. Track balls can be cleaned much like a mouse and touch-pad can be wiped with a clean, damp cloth.

Monitors

The monitor shows information on the screen when you type. This is called outputting information. When the computer needs more information it will display a message on the screen, usually through a dialog box. Monitors come in many types and sizes. The resolution of the monitor determines the sharpness of the screen. The resolution can be adjusted to control the screen’s display.To get the full benefit of today’s software with full colour graphics and animation, computers need a color monitor with a display or graphics card.

Printers

The printer takes the information on your screen and transfers it to paper or a hard copy. There are many different types of printers with various levels of quality. The three basic types of printer are; dot matrix, inkjet, and laser.

  • Dot matrix printers work like a typewriter transferring ink from a ribbon to paper with a series or ‘matrix’ of tiny pins.
  • Ink jet printers work like dot matrix printers but fire a stream of ink from a cartridge directly onto the paper.
  • Laser printers use the same technology as a photocopier using heat to transfer toner onto paper.

Modem

A modem is used to translate information transferred through telephone lines, cable, satellite or line-of-sight wireless. The term stands for modulate and demodulate which changes the signal from digital, which computers use, to analog, which telephones use and then back again. Digital modems transfer digital information directly without changing to analog. Modems are measured by the speed that the information is transferred. The measuring tool is called the baud rate. Originally modems worked at speeds below 2400 baud but today analog speeds of 56,000 are standard. Cable, wireless or digital subscriber lines can transfer information much faster with rates of 300,000 baud and up. Information is transferred in packets. Each packet is checked for errors and is re-sent if there is an error.

Scanners

Scanners allow you to transfer pictures and photographs to your computer. A scanner ‘scans’ the image from the top to the bottom, one line at a time and transfers it to the computer as a series of bits or a bitmap. You can then take that image and use it in a paint program, send it out as a fax or print it. With optional Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software you can convert printed documents such as newspaper articles to text that can be used in your word processor. Most scanners use TWAIN software that makes the scanner accessible by other software applications.

Case

The case houses the microchips and circuitry that run the computer. Desktop models usually sit under the monitor and tower models beside. They come in many sizes, including desktop, mini, midi, and full tower. There is usually room inside to expand or add components at a later time. By removing the cover off the case you may find plate covered, empty slots that allow you to add cards. There are various types of slots including IDE, ASI, USB, PCI and Firewire slots. Depending on the type notebook computers may have room to expand. Most Notebooks also have connections or ports that allows expansion or connection to exterior, peripheral devices such as monitor, portable hard-drives or other devices.

Cards

Cards are components added to computers to increase their capability. When adding a peripheral device make sure that your computer has a slot of the type needed by the device.

Sound Cards

Allow computers to produce sound like music and voice. The older sound cards were 8 bit then 16 bit then 32 bit. Though the human ear can’t distinguish the fine difference between sounds produced by the more powerful sound card they allow for more complex music and music production.

Colour Cards

Allow computers to produce colour (with a colour monitor of course). The first colour cards were 2 bit which produced 4 colours [CGA]. It was amazing what could be done with those 4 colours. Next came 4 bit allowing for 16 [EGA and VGA ] colours. Then came 16 bit allowing for 1064 colours and then 24 bit which allows for almost 17 million colours and now 32 bit and higher allow monitors to display almost a billion separate colours.

Video Cards

Allow computers to display video and animation. Some video cards allow computers to display television as well as capture frames from video. A video card with a digital video camera allows computers users to produce live video. A high speed connection is required for effective video transmission.

Network Cards

Allow computers to connect together to communicate with each other. Network cards have connections for cable, thin wire or wireless networks.

Cables

Connect internal components to the Motherboard, which is a board with series of electronic path ways and connections allowing the CPU to communicate with the other components of the computer.

Memory

Memory can be very confusing but is usually one of the easiest pieces of hardware to add to your computer. It is common to confuse chip memory with disk storage. An example of the difference between memory and storage would be the difference between a table where the actual work is done (memory) and a filing cabinet where the finished product is stored (disk). To add a bit more confusion, the computer’s hard disk can be used as temporary memory when the program needs more than the chips can provide.

Random Access Memory or RAM

Is the memory that the computer uses to temporarily store the information as it is being processed. The more information being processed the more RAM the computer needs.


1.2 Historical Background

The history of computing hardware is the record of the ongoing effort to make computer hardware faster, cheaper, and capable of storing more data.

Computing hardware evolved from machines that needed separate manual action to perform each arithmetic operation, to punched card machines, and then to stored-program computers. The history of stored-program computers relates first to computer architecture, that is, the organization of the units to perform input and output, to store data and to operate as an integrated mechanism. Secondly, this is a history of the electronic components and mechanical devices that comprise these units.

Finally, we describe the continuing integration of 21st-century supercomputers, networks, personal devices, and integrated computers/communicators into many aspects of today’s society. Increases in speed and memory capacity, and decreases in cost and size in relation to compute power, are major features of the history.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Recommendations, And Conclusion

In coupling a customized system unit form factors such as case size, and motherboard type can never be over emphasize. Just as technology is advancing, in the same vein computer components are also changing. Therefore when cloning a system unit form factor should be a guild in other to avoid waste of resources and also have a good knowledge of the kind of system unit to be built. Finally, cloning a system unit according to your own satisfaction has a lot of benefits not only that it will make you increase your knowledge of how every component of the system unit function and how to assemble them, it also gives you the courage to fix any fault arises in the system unit.


5.1 Summary

Each one of the components mentioned in the paragraphs above make up what is known as a PC or personal computer. Personal computers have become a part of everyday life for this generation. Without all of the hardware to store this data on communication would take a lot longer and jobs would be more tedious. Although the computer serves to make our lives easier they can also make us lazy and inefficient. Each piece of hardware works together to make electronic works more easier.


5.2 Recommendations

  1. Computer users are to be more encouraged in cloning a computer system unit in other to increase their knowledge based on hardware components and its functionalities.
  2. Users should always look out for updates as regards to the latest computer hardware components.
  3. Computer users should imbibe the habit of system implementation.
  4. Users are to me more careful when it come to computer system unit cloning, in other to avoid mistake or total damage to any of the hardware components in the process of cloning.
  5. Users are to always bear in mind the compatibility of hardware components.
  6. Users are to be more consistence in hardware cloning.

5.3 Conclusion

The computer you build will always mean a little bit more to you than one you buy, not least because you designed it yourself and will no doubt be upgrading it from time to time for years to come. Apart from the benefits that are attached to building your own computer to your own taste and satisfaction, you also stand the chance to know every luck and corner of the computer system which makes you more professional.


Cloning Of A Computer System Unit


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