Climate Change And Food Security In Nigeria: A Case Study Of Ogun State

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Climate Change And Food Security In Nigeria: A Case Study Of Ogun State


Abstract


The research examines climate change and food security in Nigeria. A case study of Ogun State.

The study adopted qualitative method and historical/analytical design was used in analyzing its data. Data were collected through secondary sources which include newspapers, archives, books, conference proceedings, etc.

The findings revealed that: two-thirds of the working population still turn out their living from agriculture in Ogun State. Agriculture, forestry and fisheries are all susceptible to climate;. Ogun State, climate variables such as rainfall, soil moisture, temperature and solar radiation, influences crops thresholds away from which growth and yield are compromised;. the incomes of all farming households depend on what they obtain from selling some or all of their crops and animals each year in Ogun State.

The study concluded that communities had a clear perception that climate had changed and change involved variability in rainfall, temperature, wind velocity, and ground water regimes. Also, there was general perception that rainfall and temperature patterns over the last 30 years had changed.

The study further recommends that; Improving methods and tools such as installation of rainfall and temperature measuring instruments for assessing extreme weather events;. The government and development partners should support to institute firm commitment for implementation of integrated multiple adaptation strategies;. There is great need to strengthening rice and cassava production in Ogun State to help them during the drought as cassava is a drought tolerant crops;. The community indigenous knowledge should be taped and be improved.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Food security is one of the criteria in achieving the sustainability of any economy all over the world. Since food is no doubt, the most basic of all human survival needs Brener, (2012). Food security is simply the availability and ones access to food. One is considered food secure when they do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. Although, so many efforts have been sunk in improving the quality as well as production of world food supplies, food insecurity remains prevalent globally. Food insecurity or shortage of food in many nations has caused malnutrition which has eventually resulted in death of many of its citizens Behanassi, Dragon & Yaya, (2011).

Food security requires appropriate agricultural management and utilization of natural resources and eco-systems, as well as good governance and sustainable political systems Pervaiz, (2019). The current food and economic predicaments is developed from different fundamental causes but entangled in difficult ways through their implications in financial and economic stability for food security and political security Nelson & Rosegrant, (2014). However, food security is directly affected by climate change effects that lead to worry in global livelihoods. Therefore, food insecurity is strongly linked with other global issues, such as population growth, surge in energy demand as well as completion for land and water and issues of climate change.

African Food Security Briefs (AFSB) estimated that approximately one out of every three persons in the sub-Saharan Africa is undernourished Ilaboya, (2012). Achieving a sustainable economic development in Africa at large will continue to be a mirage without well-nourished and healthy people Yoshida, (2018). In fact, failure to ensure food security has unavoidably resulted in many social problems including civil unrest and riots in many major cities of Africa. Hence, the issue of food security has been on the front burner for long and statement about several countries in Africa is that, they are food insecure Reddy, (2010).

Globally, the impacts of small change in the temperature are many, from longer drought seasons and heat waves to more aggressive hurricanes. The effects of climate change on our ecosystems is severe and widespread. Also, ensuring food security in the face of climate change is among the most daunting challenges facing humankind Wheeler, (2013). Greenhouse gases are thought to be the main contributor to climate change. They are very efficient in trapping heat into the atmosphere; therefore, it results in climate change Wheeler, (2013).While some of the problems associated with climate change are emerging gradually, action is urgently needed now in order to allow enough time to build resilience into agricultural production systems Zhou, (2015).

Climate change is an undeniable environmental threat of the 21st century which the world is currently experiencing and seeking measures to adapt and mitigate its impact. Climate change is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity and alters the composition of the global atmosphere over comparable time periods Debay, (2010). Climate change affects the whole world but the poorest people who contribute least to the change are the ones who suffer the most especially in under developed countries in Africa. Scoones (2015) shows that the net climate resulting from the change will largely be driven by atmospheric greenhouse gases. The negative impact of climate change has strengthened fears and concern among the citizens that environmental degradation and demographic pressures will displace millions of people in Africa and generate serious social disturbance Debay, (2010). While studying the potential impact of climate change, it was predicted that Africa is likely to experience higher temperatures, rising sealevels, changing rainfall patterns and increased climate variability, all of which could affect much of its population. The core challengeis that climate change threatens to overburden states and regions that are already fragile and conflict prone Tanko, (2010). It is important to recognize that the risks are not just of a humanitarian nature; they also include political and security risks that directly affect African governments in particular and the global community in general.

Food insecurity is the single greatest danger of climate change to vulnerable human populations and indeed to all humanity. Understanding the specific impacts of climate change on food security is challenging because vulnerabilities are unevenly spread across the world and ultimately depend on the ability of communities and countries to cope with risks. In the context of food security, some regions of the world might experience gains under climate change, but developing countries are likely to be negatively affected Oluwasola, (2011). That is because there are multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate disruption on agriculture and all of these impacts will increase as the global temperature increases.

There is serious problems of flooding and erosion in the littoral southern states which are mingling to threaten Nigeria with shrinkage and collapse. Increasing climate uncertainties, sheet erosion, gully erosion, periodic flooding, biodiversity depletion, agricultural land degradation and general decline in yields of agricultural produce are now common norms in the country. All of these are both direct and indirect consequences of climate change and affects the entire 179m population whose major occupation is agriculture, which, before the discovery of oil, accounts for about 80% of the country’s GDP and currently accounts for 90% of the non-oil export earnings.

Climate-related threats to global food production include risks to grain, vegetable, and fruit crops, livestock, and fisheries. Food security, like climate change, is a multi-faceted issue. It is affected not only by obvious influences such as climate and weather but also by oil and commodity prices, trade and social policies, global politics, and population growth, to name just a few Tanko, (2010). Bringing the two together to determine how climate change may impact food security is complex.

Farmers in Nigeria are not unaware of the climate change scenarios in their routine activities. The farmers describe it as conditions of drought and desiccation which has led to shortened lengths of rainy season. They have noted that it could not be possible to cultivate same crop types as in the last 30 – 50 years. For instance, while 30 – 50 years ago, they knew only of millet, sorghum, white yam, cotton and groundnuts, new varieties of both food and cash crops including tomato, rice, pepper, sweet potato and cassava have now been introduced. Often these ‘hybridized’ seeds are alien and several indigenous seeds that are resistant to local pests, diseases and vagaries of the weather are threatened.

This is further to increased costs of production due to the need for additional agrochemicals and other pesticides. The government on its part, as counter measures, through policy formulations have been responding to the challenges via mobilization and sensitization campaigns, enhancing small irrigation schemes, subsidies in inputs etc. The Academics have also been contributing to these counter measures through relevant research efforts and innovations in the fields of aquaculture, apiculture, livestock management/breeding/nutrition, crop improvement, water resources conservation, soil conservation etc. Base on the foregoing, the current research is analyzing climate change and food security in Nigeria with focus on Ogun state.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Climate change affects all four dimensions of food security: food availability, food accessibility, food utilization and food systems stability. It also has an impact on human health, livelihood assets, food production and distribution channels, as well as changing purchasing power and market flows. The impact of climate change in some region in Nigeria has result to intense extreme weather events caused by changing temperatures and precipitation patterns. However, agriculture-based livelihood systems that are already vulnerable to food insecurity face immediate risk of increased crop failure, new patterns of pests and diseases, lack of appropriate seeds and planting material, and loss of livestock. Several researchers have conducted research on climate change and food security in Nigeria. But this research will focus on climate change and food security in Nigeria with focus on Ogun state.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to analyze climate change and food security in Nigeria with focus on Ogun state.

The specific objectives are:

  1. Examine the nature of climate change in Ogun state, Nigeria.
  2. Determine the effect of climate change on food availability in Ogun State, Nigeria.
  3. Analyze the effect of climate change on food accessibility in Ogun State, Nigeria.
  4. Examine the effect of climate change on agricultural production in Ogun State, Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the nature of climate change in Nigeria?
  2. The effect of climate change on food availability in Ogun State, Nigeria is said to be?
  3. How does climate change have an effect on food accessibility in Ogun State, Nigeria?
  4. What is the effect of climate change on agricultural production in Ogun state, Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The outcome of this study will enlighten government, policy makers, stakeholders and the general public on climate change and food security in Nigeria with focus on Ogun state. The findings from this study will constitute a basis for future research and also contribute to the body of knowledge since it will be used as empirical literature. Outcome of this study will also be a guide for policy formulation both at national and state level.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study will cover climate change and food security in Nigeria. It will also focus on entire Ogun- State, Nigeria. It will also cover issues spanning 2015 to 2019. Furthermore, this research will discuss in brief the effects of climate change to the accessibility and availability of food in Nigeria.


1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

Climate:

Is the weather condition prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.

Climate Change:

Climate change refers to significant changes in global temperature. For instance, a change in global or regional climate patterns in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.

Food Security:

Is the state of having reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food.

Human Security:

Is a human right; it refers to the security of people and communities, as opposed to the security of states.

Security:

The state of being free from danger or threat.


Climate Change And Food Security In Nigeria: A Case Study Of Ogun State


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Climate Change And Food Security In Nigeria: A Case Study Of Ogun State


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