Class Size And Teachers Effectiveness In Secondary Schools
This study was carried out to examine class size and teacher’s effectiveness in secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti. Specifically, the study assess the relationship between large class size and the quality of teaching, learning and assessment. The study also find out if large class size distract the teacher from been effective. The study further identify if class size enables the teacher to know the strength and weakness of each student. Lastly, the study evaluate if class size helps a teacher keep good discipline or manage the class. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 30 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that there is a relationship between large class size and the quality of teaching, learning and assessment. Also, large class size distract the teacher from been effective. Furthermore,class size enables the teacher to know the strength and weakness of each student. Lastly,class size helps a teacher keep good discipline or manage the class. The study thereby recommend that educators and teachers should be prepared and trained to teach small classes. In other words, they should receive training on how they can benefit from fewer students in the class in order to teach them more effectively. Also, school supervisors and inspector should concentrate more on the number of students in each class and avoid overcrowding in classes. Lastly, teachers can share their best practices in classroom management and help each other in terms of sharing ideas, activities and strategies. At the same time, a teacher assistant system could be implemented.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope of the study
- 1.8 Limitation of the study
- 1.9 Definition of terms
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Framework
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Population of the study
- 3.4 Sample size determination
- 3.5 Sample size selection technique and procedure
- 3.6 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.7 Method of data collection
- 3.8 Method of data analysis
- 3.9 Validity of the study
- 3.10 Reliability of the study
- 3.11 Ethical consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Answering Research Questions
- 4.3 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
For many years, educators, politicians and people in general have debated on the number of students a teacher can work effectively to ensure students adequate learning. Although most people would agree that having a few student to teacher ratio would benefit the student academically, mainly will also argue that it does not guarantee success and would cost school a great deal or more money. Prior to reviewing the research, a clarification, of terms associated with the research, a clarification of terms associated with the research context is necessary. Students achievement applies to making sure all students have the necessary skills and knowledge to function in school so that they may also succeed as adult (National Education Association, 2002). But others see a much broader, richer, picture and the state standards as something to be met on the way to the broader picture. Three areas that fit into the broader picture are academics, essential life skills and responsibility to the community. Definitions vary across the research spectrum, but for the purpose of this paper, small class size will be defined as classes with approximately 15 students, while large or regular class will be defined as classrooms with approximately 24 or more students (Harris and Plank, 2000)., the term average class size is a calculation of the total number of students in a grade level divided by the number of classroom sections in that school or school district.
The relationship between class size and academic performance has been a perplexing one for educators. Studies have found that the physical environment, class overcrowding and teaching methods are all variables that affect students achievement (Molnal, et al 2000). Other factors that affect students achievement are school population and class size (Gentry, 2000, and Swift, 2000). The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problems is so much that it has led to the decline in standard of education. Since the academic success of students depends largely on the school environment, it is imperative to examine the impact variables of class size and school population on the academic performance of students in secondary school. Large class size quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. This is because large class size do not allow individual students to get attention from teachers which invariable lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance. In order to better understand the skill levels of students, it might be necessary to evaluate factors affecting their performance. These factors can include; school structure and organization, teachers quality, curriculum and teaching philosophies (Driscoill, Halcoussis and Sony, 2003). The idea that school population and class size might affect students performance is consistent with the growing literature on the relationship between public sector institutional arrangement and outcomes (Moe, 2003). The purpose of this study is to further examine the relationship of class size, school population and students academic achievement.
The student achievement guarantee in education defines class size reduction as “reduce to class 15” class size reduction can be defined as reducing the number of students in a classroom. Classroom averages, as defined above, can be reduced by introducing more teachers. If a school has 120 students in first grade with five class room teachers, the average class size will be 24 students per class. That number will be reduced if another teacher is utilized in that grade level. 120 students divided by six classroom teachers will result in average class size of 20 students per class. Minorities are defined as students who are indicated as an ethnics status of Afro-American, Asian American, Native American or Hispanic American and is citizen of the United States has permanent immigrant or refugee status (University of Wisdom, Modison, 2009). The term minority is a relative term at this point in time. Minorities were often considered so because a majority of the population in the United State was Caucasians. However, there are many cities even states, where Caucasians are not the majority.
The premise that reducing class size can lead to improved teaching and learning is one that most teachers and parents would readily endorse (Kennedy, 2003). Given a choice between a classroom with 20 students one with 30 students, who would want to argue that the larger class would be a better learning environment for each students in that class. The major problems schools are running into is that then funding for these small class sizes is not available, that the funding for these small class sizes is not available., or is decreasing. Many states and school districts dealing increasingly with shortfalls in revenue are smaller classes.
Advocates of small classes believes that small class size allow teacher to give more individualized attention to students, manage their classrooms more effectively and provide more effective instruction that leads to better students performance. In a smaller classroom, a teacher has more time to get to know each student personality and academic strengths and weaknesses, students receive more attention and are less likely to become discipline problems with less time spent on classroom management; teachers can focus more on classroom instruction and students learning. Patricia A Wesley of the college of education at the University of Washington writes “my teaching and research experiences have convince me that both small classes and small schools are crucial to a teacher’s ability to succeed with students” (Wasley, 2002). Some people are not convenience, however, that reducing class size ensures an academic advantage. Kirk A Johnson is a senior policy analyst in the center for data analysis, heritage foundation and asks the question, “are class size reduction programs uniformly positive or does a downside exists to hiring and placing more teachers in its public schools?” (Johnson, 2002). Because of state mandates in classroom reductions, schools are required to hire more inexperienced teachers and are suffering from a lack of qualified teachers to fill the classroom (Johnson, 2002). Others argue that there is no substantive proof that class size makes a difference in students performance and there may be other influences affecting students performance. Evidence linking smaller classes to improved performance is inconclusive for instance, difference studies have varied in their definition of small class size.
According to Erik Haunshek (2003) of the Hoover institution, only 15 percent of the studies found that reducing class size has a statistically significant positive effect on performance. Moreover, almost as many studies (13 percent) found that reducing class size has a statistically negative effect on student performance. The remaining 72 percent and indicate that reducing class size has no statistically significant effect nonperformance. The results were similar in the 136 studies of elementary school class size. Only 13 percent of them found that reducing class size increase students performance, and 20 percent indicate that a reduction harms performance. Thus, in the words of Hanuyshek “there is little reason to believe that smaller class sizes systematically yield higher student achievement” (Barcia, and Fredua-Kwarteng, 2008). Evidence linking smaller classes to improved performance is therefore inconclusive. This study therefore looks at how class size and teacher’s effectiveness in secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Generally, the phenomenon of large class size in education is not only a negative situation for developing nations, but also for developed nations. Studies, carried out on the impact of large class size in schools, revealed that,“There have been a number of class size reduction projects, following Achilles and Finn’s (1999) proclamation that small classes should be a cornerstone of educational policy”, as cited by Elkington and Lloyd-Staples. This policy was adopted by China and the Netherlands. The UK government followed suit when “prompted” by concerns of “large classes”, and as a result, “at great expense” introduced “a maximum of 30 to a class for the youngest children in schools (5-7 years)” (Elkington & Lloyd-Staples,2009 ). The ATL(Association of Teachers and Lecturers) noted that, “Nearly 96% of education staffs feel that there should be a maximum number of pupils for primary and secondary classes”. According to ATL (2009), “a quarter of the respondents” were of the view that “the current pupil to teacher ratio in their classes” was “unacceptable even with their support staff”. The ATL further indicated that of the teachers who teach in “schools with more than 500 pupils, 83% feel that the size of their classes has an impact on pupils’ concentration; 83% also believe that this has an impact on pupils’ participation” (ATL, 2009,). They also pointed out that large class size does not only affect thequality of teaching and learning, but also affect their “stress levels”. Besides that, they emphasized that large class size makes it hard “to deal with behavioral problems” and “give individual support to those students on the SEN register in large classes”.
1.3 Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of class size and teacher’s effectiveness in secondary schools.
Specially, the study sought to:
- To assess the relationship between large class size and the quality of teaching, learning and assessment.
- To find out if large class size distract the teacher from been effective.
- To identify if class size enables the teacher to know the strength and weakness of each student.
- To evaluate if class size helps a teacher keep good discipline or manage the class.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher is trying to substantiate the result of this study has deducted the following researcher questions which are:
- Is there any relationship between large class size and the quality of teaching, learning and assessment?
- Does large class size distract the teacher from been effective?
- Does class size enables the teacher to know the strength and weakness of each student?
- Does class size helps a teacher keep good discipline or manage the class.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study has the potential to guide the policy maker about the present scenario of education system. They make the vision and may improve the situation through adopting a better policy about teachers. The study is also likely to guide for developing the education, standard for students teacher, ratio. This study is also important such that the findings made will help teachers to identify the reasons for the academic performances of students in large classes with high population and how they can address the problems. It will provide comprehensive information for educational planners, educators, and parents on how they can assist students to cope in large classes.
This research work will lead to further in-depth study on the impact of class size and will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature on effect of class size.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study will assess the relationship between large class size and the quality of teaching, learning and assessment. The study will also identify the challenges faced by teachers in large classes. The study will further provide possible suggestions to overcome the problems and challenges of large class size. Hence this study will be delimited to secondary schools in Ado- Ekiti, Ekiti State
1.7 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.
In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.
More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other companies and locations.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
In this study, our focus was on class size and teacher’s effectiveness in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Ado Ekiti as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting the relationship between large class size and the quality of teaching, learning and assessment, find out if large class size distract the teacher from been effective, identify if class size enables the teacher to know the strength and weakness of each student, and evaluate if class size helps a teacher keep good discipline or manage the class. A total of 30 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from teachers from the selected secondary schools.
Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:
- There is a relationship between large class size and the quality of teaching, learning and assessment.
- Large class size distract the teacher from been effective.
- Class size enables the teacher to know the strength and weakness of each student.
- Class size helps a teacher keep good discipline or manage the class.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- That educators and teachers should be prepared and trained to teach small classes. In other words, they should receive training on how they can benefit from fewer students in the class in order to teach them more effectively.
- School supervisors and inspector should concentrate more on the number of students in each class and avoid overcrowding in classes.
- Teachers can share their best practices in classroom management and help each other in terms of sharing ideas, activities and strategies. At the same time, a teacher assistant system could be implemented
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Frequently Asked Questions
Does class size affect teaching and learning in primary schools?
Throughout the primary school years. students in the class and larger numbers of students within the groups. This had negative effects on teaching, learning and students’ concentration.
How to measure the teaching effectiveness of secondary school teachers?
The teaching effectiveness was estimated by a self-rating scale, namely Jayaraman’s Teacher Effectiveness Scale (JTES) developed by Jayaramanna. The primary aim of this study was to explore the differences in teaching effectiveness of the secondary school teachers in terms of their gender, locality of the schools and their designation.
Do class sizes and teacher ratios affect child achievement?
Children who start behind their peers benefit most. There is also a positive effect on smaller in the lower secondary school. This suggests that the achievement of weaker students poorer families) may be put at risk if teacher student ratios and class sizes are increased.
What is the average effect size of teacher ratings on learning?
The average effect size of ‘quality of teaching’ is 0.44, considerably smaller (average effect size 0.57, rank 37). Mo re seriously, perhaps, in terms of the relevance of his learning come from student ratings of teachers by college and university students’ (p. 115).