Chemistry Of Tramadol
Tramadol hydrochloride [TMH],chemically known as [1R,2R]-vel-2-[dimethlamino]-1-[3-methoxyphecy] cynonexanol[figure]is asynthetic analogue of codine and is a antrally acting analgestic agent.
- It is metabolized by the anytochrom P450 enzyme system in the liver to form eleven matabolites of which 0-desmethy tramado [M1] predomilate and has anagestic properties
- It has been used since 1977 for the relief of severe physical pain and has been the most widely sold opioid analgestic drug in the world.
- TMH is official in European pharamacopeia [EP]
- It describe nonaqueoua titration with perchloric acid as tritrant the end point being located pontentiometically ultraviolet spetrophometry.
High perfomance liguid chometrography, thin layer chomatrography –detromrtry capillary isotachophysis flow injection chemileum nescence spectrometry, voitametry ion-setective-bised potentionmetry visible spectrometry, and trtrimetry for determining TMH in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
In addition, there have been part of its assay when present in combination with other drugs. TDH and ibuprofen ware assayed simultaneously by the first –order denvative spetrophytometry and HPLC with UV-detected. The TMH along with detetroprofen and haloperidot have been determine by HPLC-deode array detection [DAD] method simultaneous analysis of TMH and acceclofenac in a commercial tablet was accomplished also by HPLC with UV-detection method. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol, TNH and dompenriodone in combine dosage form using RP-HPLC has been reported by karun akaran etal.
In recent years, there has been an increased tending towards development of stability –indication analysis, using the approach to stress testing enshrimed in international conference harmonization [ICT] guideline Q2A[R2].this approach is being extended to pharmaceutical to enable accurate and prease gualification of drugs in the presence of their degradation products. Though there are many reported methods of the analysis of TMH either alone or in combination with other drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms, the literate on the stability –indication method is scarce. Mohammed etal have elevated the stability of tramadol enantiomers using a chiral stability – indicating capillary electrophoresis method and its application to pharamaceutical analysis. Chemical stability of TMH in infection has been reported by Gupta.
Ultra performance liquid chromatography [UPEC] is a relatively new technique giving new possibility in liquid chromatography especially concerning stecrise of time and anal solvent consumption. UPLC system is designed in a special way to withstand high system back pressure special analysis colume UPLC acquity UPLC BEH C18 packed with 1.7 jum partickes are used in the system. The UPLC system allows shortening analysis time up to nine time compared to used convention of HPLC system, but separation efficiency remains the same or even improve as efficiency and speed of analysis are of great importance in many application of liquid chonmatography, especially in pharmaceutical, toxicological and chemical analysis, where cost, UPLC could play significant role in the future of liquid chromatography.
Three report are found in the literature dealing with the application of UPLC with mass spectrometric dectection for the determine nations of TMH in different matrices. A sensitive UPLC-MS\MS method for TMH in urine and whole blood in forensosn context has very recently been reported kasprzk-hordarn etal. Determine TMH in surface water by solid-phase extraction and UPLC-positive etectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
Simultaneous screening and quantification of 29 drugs abuse including TMH in oral third has seen reported by badawi atai sohd phrase extraction and UPLC-MS/MS.
Complete Material Available
Chemistry Of Tramadol
The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.
Quick & Simple…
Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:
|Account No.: 0811003731|
|Name: Samphina Academy|
|Account Type: Current|
Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card
|FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:|
|Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)|
|GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey|
Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497
- Payment Details
- Email Address
- Chemistry Of Tramadol
The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply
You may also like:
Chemistry Of Tramadol
This research material “Chemistry Of Tramadol” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.
The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.
samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Chemistry Of Tramadol” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.
How to defend your research work
This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:
1. Prepare For Questions:
If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “Chemistry Of Tramadol“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.
2. Strong Summary:
Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.
3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:
Not knowing your topic “Chemistry Of Tramadol” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.
Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.
5 . Listen:
Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.